博碩士論文 105821013 詳細資訊




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姓名 徐詩涵(Shih-Han Hsu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 生命科學系
論文名稱 東亞及東南亞地區貢德氏赤蛙之親緣地理關係研究
(Phylogeography of Sylvirana guentheri in East and Southeast Asia)
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摘要(中) 貢德氏赤蛙(Sylvirana guentheri)為一種常見蛙類,廣泛分布於中國東南部、臺灣以及越南。一般認為兩棲動物的移動及遷移能力較差並且不能過通過地理屏障,像是高山或者是海洋。兩棲動物種群的遷移與擴散模式對於地理屏障的限制相當敏感,造成種群之間的差異。因此,兩棲類是研究地理親緣關係相當好的材料。我們的研究目的是利用貢德氏赤蛙的粒線體與核基因的基因核苷酸序列作分子遺傳標記,建立貢德氏赤蛙各族群間的親緣關係,並探討貢德氏赤蛙在東亞及東南亞地區可能的擴散模式以及遷移路徑。本研究所使用的材料為在臺灣各地所採集到的樣本,以及從NCBI上收集來自其他國家的基因核苷酸序列。利用三個粒線體基因及一個核基因(12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, Cytochrome b, and CXCR4) 進行親緣關係分析。根據研究結果,不同地區的族群存在差異性,其中臺灣西部的貢德氏赤蛙族群與臺灣東部的族群已開始有遺傳分化現象。此外,透過親緣關係樹狀圖及分子時鐘的估算結果也顯示了貢德氏赤蛙可能源自於東南亞,並在冰河時期間向北擴張延伸到臺灣及中國。
摘要(英) Sylvirana guentheri, a species of Ranidae, widely distributes across southeastern China, Taiwan, and Vietnam. As amphibians, the migration is limited by geographical barriers, resulting in population differentiation. The purpose of our research is to use the DNA sequences of mitochondria and nuclear genes as molecular genetic markers to examine the phylogeography among the populations of S. guentheri, and to investigate the possible dispersal modes and migration paths of S. guentheri in East and Southeast Asia. The dataset includes newly acquired sequences of samples collected in Taiwan, and those of other regions’ samples from NCBI. Three mitochondrial gene regions and one nuclear gene region (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, Cytochrome b, and CXCR4) were used, to reconstruct phylogeny. Based on our results, there are population variation among different areas, such as the population of S. guentheri in western Taiwan is obviously different from the population in eastern Taiwan. In addition, our results support that S. guentheri might originate in Southeast Asia and extend northward through Hainan to Taiwan. Later, there was another dispersal northward from Vietnam.
關鍵字(中) ★ 貢德氏赤蛙
★ 親緣地理
★ 族群遺傳
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要………………………………………………………………ii
誌謝……………………………………………………………………iii
目錄……………………………………………………………………iv
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………vi
表目錄…………………………………………………………………vii
縮寫表…………………………………………………………………viii
一、前言………………………………………………………………1
1-1親緣地理……………………………………………………………1
1-2族群遺傳……………………………………………………………2
1-3臺灣地質歷史………………………………………………………4
1-4分子技術……………………………………………………………5
1-5文獻回顧……………………………………………………………7
1-6研究之物種…………………………………………………………9
1-7研究目的……………………………………………………………11
二、材料與方法………………………………………………………12
2-1樣本採集……………………………………………………………12
2-2DNA萃取……………………………………………………………12
2-3聚合酶連鎖反應……………………………………………………14
2-4核苷酸序列整理……………………………………………………15
2-5核苷酸變異程度分析與分子親緣關係分析………………………16
三、結果………………………………………………………………18
3-1核苷酸序列分析……………………………………………………18
3-2遺傳變異分析………………………………………………………20
3-3親緣關係分析………………………………………………………24
3-4分子時鐘分析………………………………………………………25
四、討論………………………………………………………………26
五、結論………………………………………………………………29
參考文獻………………………………………………………………30
附錄一…………………………………………………………………57

圖目錄
圖一冰河時期東南亞地區巽他古陸範圍圖…………………………40
圖二貢德氏赤蛙在東亞及東南亞地區之分佈圖……………………41
圖三臺灣貢德氏赤蛙採集地點與單倍型的比例分布圖……………42
圖四貢德氏赤蛙核苷酸序列變異程度圖……………………………43
圖五貢德氏赤蛙族群的單倍型多樣性及核苷酸多樣性分佈圖……44
圖六以Maximum Likelihood演算法建構親緣關係樹………………45
圖七以Bayesian Inference演算法建構親緣關係樹………………46
圖八利用TCS建構單倍型之親緣網狀圖……………………………47
圖九以BEAST建構各區域族群的分歧時間…………………………48
圖十貢德氏赤蛙族群擴散模式假說示意圖…………………………49

表目錄
表一本研究使用之NCBI資料…………………………………………50
表二本研究使用之外群的選擇………………………………………51
表三貢德氏赤蛙單倍型與樣本採集地點分佈………………………53
表四貢德氏赤蛙族群遺傳結構分析…………………………………54
表五臺灣貢德氏赤蛙遺傳分化指數及基因交流指數………………55
表六貢德氏赤蛙族群遺傳距離………………………………………56
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