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姓名 顏子昀(ZIH-YUN YAN) 查詢紙本館藏 畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所 論文名稱 金錢酬賞之來源與其分配對公平性感知的影響
(The impacts of sources and allocation of monetary reward on fairness perception)
★ The influence of experience on the SNARC effect -the mapping between sequential information and spatial representation ★ 中文名詞動詞的具體效果的神經相關活動 ★ 字形和語意對短期記憶的影響: 從行為及腦造影實驗而來的證據 ★ 中文字音與字形相似度對語言短期記憶之影響 ★ 非語音訊息對中英雙語使用者的語言短期記憶的貢獻 ★ 中文短期記憶之字形表徵研究 ★ The temporal dynamics of the code-switching between alphabetic and logographic languages in unbalancedChinese-English bilinguals ★ The acquisition of Chinese literacy as a second language correlates with statistical learning of implicit transitional probability ★ 以行為及腦造影證據探討英文字音及字形相似效果對中英雙語使用者之短期記憶的影響 ★ The behavioral and neural correlates of orthographic lexicon and orthographic buffer in Chinese writing ★ EXPLORATION OF THE NEURAL CORRELATES OF SYNTACTIC PROCESSING IN CHINESE USING FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS ★ 視知覺相關能力以及統計學習能力對中文識字學習的影響：來自以中文為母語或外語學習者的證據 ★ Correlation of statistical learning of different implicit transitional probabilities with Chinese literacy acquisition in non-native adult learners ★ 對不同感官類型與相鄰性、非相鄰性規則之統計學習能力的個體差異 檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式] [Bibtex 格式] [相關文章] [文章引用] [完整記錄] [館藏目錄] 至系統瀏覽論文 (2023-7-31以後開放) 摘要(中) 為了研究影響人類公平性感知的影響因素，我們分別在三個實驗中的第一階段創造出一金錢不平等的情境，並操弄金錢的來源以及大小來檢視受試者在不同情境下對於下一階段(第二階段)的金錢分配會有甚麼樣的行為與神經機制上的差異。實驗中，受試者在第一階段會被分別分派到運氣組（隨機抽球）或是努力組（拉霸測驗）。實驗一另再加上數學測驗組（判斷數字大小），並根據受試者表現來決定是成為贏家或是輸家。贏家可得一筆獎金，輸家則無。第二階段受試者再度面臨十一種不同類型但總額相同的金錢分配，受試者須對不同分配做出滿意度的評分。
摘要(英) To investigate how the interfering factors affect people’s fairness perception, we experimentally manipulated the source of monetary reward that is determined by a luck-based or effort-based task and examined whether the allocation of the monetary reward would modulate participants’ satisfaction of monetary distribution. We conducted three experiments in total. Specifically, in the first stage of all the experiments, college students were classified as “winners” or “losers”, each of which was against one opponent, based on pure luck (i.e., random drawing) or real efforts (i.e., a number-line dissection task). In Experiment 1, we also included a math-ability task (i.e., ten arithmetic math questions). Winners across all conditions received all and the same amount of monetary reward, while losers received no reward. In the second stage of every experiment, all participants were asked to make satisfaction ratings for the distribution of an additional amount of monetary reward between themselves and the opponent.
Experiment 1 showed similar behavioral patterns of preferring the self-more distribution (i.e., participants received more money than the opponent) in the luck, the math, and the effort conditions for both winners and losers. Participants were not affected by the inequality in the first stage, possibly because the two experimental stages were perceived as independent. Therefore, in Experiment 2, we modified the total amount of the monetary reward of the distributions and emphasized the inequality between winners and losers in the second stage. The results showed that both in the luck and the effort conditions, winners preferred equal over unequal distribution of which they received more additional monetary reward than losers (i.e., the self-more distribution). Losers, in contrast, in both the luck and the effort conditions tended to prefer self-more over equal or self-less distribution of which participants received less money than the opponent. We did not observe the effect from the source of the reward in Experiment 2.
In Experiment 3, we adopted the design of Experiment 2 and changed the original between-subject design into within-subject design, that is, all participants experienced the luck and the effort conditions in combination with simultaneous fMRI recording. Behaviorally, the effect of the manipulations in the allocation of reward was weaker than that in Experiment 2, as both winners and losers preferred the self-more distribution. We did not find strong evidence for the effect of the source of the monetary reward. However, when examining the variance of rating for each distribution, we observed a larger individual difference among winners than among losers in Experiment 3. Some winners in Experiment 3 gave a positive rating even under the self-less distribution. This indicated that some winners still took fairness into consideration, yet the number of people was not as many as in Experiment 2. From our neural data, we did not find the brain areas that were identified to be involved in processing subjective value in previous literature, such as the ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), to associate with participants’ ratings of various distributions. However, when we contrasted the process underlying participants’ rating decisions with that underlying their button pressing, we found that the activations of the parietal cortex and the insula were significantly larger in the former than in the latter condition. The activation of these brain area indicated that the participants were indeed processing the value, no matter the value was larger or smaller than the opponent’s. In addition, we also found that losers showed a stronger brain activation in association with the subjective rating in the insula than losers. This indicated that losers paid more attention and were emotionally more engaged in the second stage than winners.
In summary, we found that perception of fairness can be affected by the allocation of monetary reward. However, even when adequate attention is placed on the modulating factors that give rise to unequal monetary reward, individual difference might play a dominant role in fairness perception which is reflected in preference and satisfaction of monetary distribution.
關鍵字(中) ★ 社會偏好
關鍵字(英) ★ social preference
★ real effort task
論文目次 Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 The inequity-aversion model and theory 2
1.2 Behavioral evidence for inequity-aversion 4
1.3 Neural evidence for inequality-aversion 5
1.4 Interfering factors of inequity-aversion preference 8
1.5 The current study and hypothesis 10
Chapter 2 Experiment 1 12
2.1 Methods 12
2.1.1 Participants 12
2.1.2 Experimental design 12
2.1.3 Experimental procedure 13
2.2 Results 16
2.2.1 ANOVA of the mean subjective rating 16
2.2.2 Regression analysis of the subjective rating and the amount of the money 19
2.3 Discussion 20
Chapter 3 Experiment 2 23
3.1 Methods 23
3.1.1 Participants 23
3.1.2 Experimental design 23
3.1.3 Experimental procedure 24
3.2 Results 26
3.2.1 ANOVA of the mean subjective rating 26
3.2.2 Regression analysis of the subjective rating and the amount of the money 29
3.2.3 Variance analysis of subjective rating 30
3.3 Discussion 31
Chapter 4 Experiment 3 34
4.1.1 Participants 34
4.1.2 Experimental design 34
4.1.3 Experimental procedure 34
4.2 Imaging acquisition 38
4.3 Data Analysis 39
4.3.1 Imaging data preprocessing 39
4.3.2 The 1st level GLM modeling and the 2nd level contrasts 40
4.4 Results 41
4.4.1 Behavioral results 41
ANOVA of the mean subjective rating 41
Regression analysis of the subjective rating and the amount of the money 43
Variance analysis of subjective rating 44
4.4.2 fMRI results 45
Whole brain analysis 45
ROI analysis 55
4.5 Discussion 57
Chapter 5 General Discussion 62
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指導教授 吳嫻(Denise Hsien Wu) 審核日期 2018-8-6 推文 facebook plurk twitter funp google live udn HD myshare reddit netvibes friend youpush delicious baidu 網路書籤 Google bookmarks del.icio.us hemidemi myshare