博碩士論文 106022603 詳細資訊




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姓名 阮 氏 梅(Nguyen Thi Mai)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 遙測科技碩士學位學程
論文名稱 衛星觀測越南河內都市發展在環境與氣候衝擊之分析
(The Impact of Urban Development on Environment and Meteorology in Hanoi, Vietnam from Satellite Observations)
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摘要(中) 越南首都河內(河內大都會區)自1990年以來持續地快速發展,社會經濟也同時快速增長和繁榮,另一方面,隨著城市發展所造成環境衝擊的議題也引起了公眾的極大關注。因此本研究旨在調查城市發展對城市擴張、城市熱島(Urban Heat Island; UHI)及1999 - 2016年間都會生活品質相關的區域天氣現象(局部小氣候環境)之影響。為達此目標,本文應用多時的衛星影像及相關的地面測站氣象數據資料(亦即1999年,2009年和2016年)進行分析與探討,包括常態化差異植被指數(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI)及常態化差異建物指數(Normalized Difference Built Index; NDBI)研究土地利用/土地覆蓋變化等重要參數的空間演變。研究結果基於多時相的地表溫度(Land Surface Temperature; LST)顯示,河內都市擴張對UHI強度的影響明顯增大,且隨著都市化的逐步向外和向北擴展,都市化加劇了都市地區的熱島效應與強度,在不久的將來可能形成新的城市熱島區域。此外,根據城市熱場變異指數(Urban Thermal Field Variance Index; UTFVI)的評估,超過30%的河內大都市區的生態品質正值惡化中。在天氣方面,都市化對城鄉地區的相對濕度,總降雨量,溫度和風速都有明顯地影響。總體研究結果顯示河內都市發展及其環境衝擊給河內大都會區的可持續發展帶來了迫切性的議題與新的挑戰。
摘要(英) The Hanoi capital region in Vietnam has undergone rapid development since 1990, which has gone together with increasing socio-economic growth and prosperity. However, the environmental degradation that has accompanied urban development has raised considerable concern from the public in recent years. This research investigates the impacts of urban development on urban sprawl, urban heat island and metropolitan weather phenomena related to the quality of urban life in the period from 1999-2016. To achieve these objectives, remote sensing technologies were applied to satellite images at three time points (i.e., 1999, 2009 and 2016) associated with the meteorological dataset from ground-based stations. The spatial distribution evolution of land use/land cover changes were examined using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference built-up index (NDBI). The increasing impact of urban sprawl on UHI intensity is determined based on the land surface temperature (LST) in multi-temporal forms. The correlation analysis shows that the UHI was intensified by increasing urban area with the development of gradual outward and northward expansion from the city centre. The potential formation of new UHI areas in the near future is also indicated. Furthermore, more than 30 % of the metropolitan area is decaying in ecological quality, according to assessment of the urban thermal field variance index (UTFVI). With respect to metropolitan weather, observation of meteorological parameters revealed that the relative humidity, total rainfall, temperature and wind speed over both urban and rural areas have been affected by the urbanization in Hanoi. The overall results imply that urban development and its environmental impacts have imposed pressing issues and new challenges to sustainable development in the Hanoi metropolitan area.
關鍵字(中) ★ 都市發展
★ 都市熱島效應
★ 越南河內市
★ 衛星觀測
★ 生態評估
★ 都市天氣
關鍵字(英) ★ urban development
★ urban heat island effect
★ Hanoi Vietnam
★ satellite observation
★ ecological assessment
★ metropolis weather
論文目次 Abstract i
Acknowledgments iv
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1-1 Background and the issues of urbanization 1
1-2 Scientific question 3
1-3 Objectives 4
1-4 Thesis roadmap 5
Chapter 2: Literature review 6
2-1 Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect 6
2-1-1 Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon 6
2-1-2 Impacts of Urban Heat Island 8
2-2 Hanoi-nation’s political center of Vietnam 9
2-2-1 Hanoi-General information 9
2-2-2 Urban development in Hanoi city 9
2-3 Landsat imagery and its application on the urban study 12
2-3-1 Landsat imagery and the data used in this study 12
2-3-2 Application of Landsat images in urban study 20
Chapter 3: Materials and Methodology 21
3-1 Change of urbanization indicators 25
3-2 Image processing 25
3-2-1 Pre-processing 25
3-2-2 Mapping Land Use Land Cover (LULC) 26
3-2-3 Calculation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI) 31
3-2-4 Retrieval of Land Surface Temperature (LST) 32
3-2-5 Mapping Urban Heat Island (UHI) zone 33
3-2-6 Urban Thermal Field Variance Index (UTFVI) 34
3-3 Variation of meteorology 36
3-4 Statistical analysis 36
Chapter 4: Results and Discussions 37
4-1 Urbanization in Hanoi 37
4-1-1 Changes of Population and socio-economic indicators 37
4-1-2 Changes of LULC 41
4-2 Impacts of urban sprawl on SUHI 45
4-2-1 NDVI and NDBI maps 45
4-2-2 LST retrievals 47
4-2-3 UHI and non-UHI zone 51
4-3 Association of LST with LULC 54
4-4 Correlations between LST and NDVI/NDBI 58
4-5 Relationship between UHI and urbanization indicators in Hanoi 60
4-6 Atmospheric UHI 62
4-7 UTFVI map in Hanoi 67
4-8 Variation of regional weather in Hanoi (1961-2016) 69
Chapter 5: Conclusions 72
5-1 Conclusions 72
5-2 Future study 74
References 76
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指導教授 林 唐 煌(Tang-Huang Lin) 審核日期 2019-7-23
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