博碩士論文 106126006 詳細資訊




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姓名 王瀧毅(Long-Yi Wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 藝術學研究所
論文名稱 立體鏡旅遊系統:以《立體鏡中的中國》為例
(Stereoscope Travel System: A Case Study of China Through the Stereoscope by James Ricalton)
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摘要(中) 美國的立體攝影出版商安德伍德與安德伍德公司於1901年發行的立體照片套組《立體鏡中的中國:義和團事變時期的龍帝國之旅》可視為中國義和團事變時期的重要歷史文獻。這組由美國攝影師詹姆斯.理卡爾頓拍攝的100幅立體照片與載有圖說的導覽指南,見證了義和團事變前夕之前的中國,並記錄了八國聯軍之役。除了立體照片與導覽指南,此一套組還附有標示照片拍攝地點的專利地圖,這三項要素構成讓使用者也能在家享有異國旅行體驗的「旅遊系統」。與在中國活動的一般西方攝影師拍攝的旅遊圖像比較,《立體鏡中的中國》於後半部呈現大量的事件報導攝影。遊記與報導攝影同時並存,成為《立體鏡中的中國》引人注目的特徵。此一套組的照片受制於立體攝影和旅遊系統觀看框架的形式慣例,這是過往將其以單幅照片觀看的研究者所未發現的問題。此外,理卡爾頓不僅是《立體鏡中的中國》的照片拍攝者,也是導覽指南的撰述者,這使得《立體鏡中的中國》中圖像與文字間尤其呈現出多重、歧異與互補的關係。理卡爾頓拍攝的照片與撰寫的文字,或多或少也受前人作品影響,但他仍透過實地走訪與戮力求真,致力呈現1900年中國的某種真實,而揭露這個真實的樣貌便是本文的目標。
摘要(英) The stereograph set China Through the Stereoscope: A Journey Through the Dragon Empire at the Time of the Boxer Uprising released by the American stereograph publisher Underwood & Underwood in 1901 can be regarded as an important historical document during the Boxer Rebellion in China. This set of 100 stereographs taken by American photographer James Ricalton (1844-1929), together with the guidebook in accordance with the stereographs, witnessed China before the Boxer incident and the battle of the Eight-Nation Alliance. In addition to stereographs and guidebook, this set also came with a patent map marking the location where the photos were taken. These three elements constitute a "travel system" which Underwood & Underwood used to promote their stereographic products. Compared with the travel images taken by other Western photographers in China, China Through the Stereoscope is a travel adventure and war documentary at the same time. The coexistence of travel photography and photojournalism has become a striking feature of China Through the Stereoscope. This set of photographs was subject to the formal conventions of viewing frames in stereographic photography, a characteristic seldom noticed by previous researchers who viewed them as single photographs. On the other hand, Ricalton was not only the photographer of China Through the Stereoscope, but also the author of the guidebook. This makes the word-image relationship in China Through the Stereoscope particularly multiple, complementary and dense. Ricalton′s photographs and writing were certainly influenced by the work of his predecessors, but he still strived to present a certain reality of China in 1900 through field visits and meticulous observation. The goal of this research is also to reveal the reality of the making of China Through the Stereoscope.
關鍵字(中) ★ 詹姆斯.理卡爾頓
★ 
★ 立體攝影
★ 
★ 「旅遊系統」
關鍵字(英) ★ James Ricalton
★ 
★ Stereography
★ 
★ “travel system”
論文目次

摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝辭 iii
目錄 iv
緒論 1
研究動機與角度 4
文獻回顧與問題意識 7
研究材料與限制 16
章節概要 18
第一章 立體攝影的創發與演變 20
第一節 雙眼視覺理論的變遷 20
第二節 英國立體鏡的發展 22
第三節 美國立體鏡與立體攝影的發展 24
第四節 Underwood公司的崛起與其「旅遊系統」 29
小結 34
第二章 理卡爾頓與旅行攝影 37
第一節 從年少時期到成為教師 37
第二節 幾乎不花錢的旅行 40
第三節 成為職業旅行家與攝影師 46
小結 51
第三章 理卡爾頓鏡頭下的中國 53
第一節 理卡爾頓在中國的旅程 53
第二節 《立體鏡中的中國》之照片類別 58
第三節 形式慣例 61
第四節 中國之旅與個人意識形態及經驗的連結 65
第五節 「格套」與紀實 70
小結 79
結論 80
參考資料 83
圖版 90
圖表 138

參考文獻 史料文獻
Ricalton, James. China Through the Stereoscope: A Journey Through the Dragon Empire at the Time of the Boxer Uprising, New York: Underwood & Underwood, 1901.
西文書目
(一)攝影史
1. Brewster, David. The Stereoscope: Its History, Theory and Construction, With Its Application to the Fine and Useful Arts and to Education, London: John Murray, 1856.
2. Darrah, William C. The World of Stereographs, Nashville: Land Yacht Press, 1997.
3. Green, David ed. Where is the Photograph ?, Maidstone: Photoworks:, 2003.
4. Hung, Wu and Tsiang, Katherine R. Body and Face in Chinese Visual Culture, Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2004.
5. Lucas, Christopher J. James Ricalton′s Photographs of China During the Boxer Rebellion. His Illustrated Travelogue of 1900, Studies in the Photographic Arts, Vol. 1, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1990.
6. Morris, Rosalind C. ed., Photographies East: The Camera and Its Histories in East and Southeast Asia, Duke University Press, 2008.
7. Osborne, Albert E. The Stereograph and the Stereoscope, With Special Maps and Books Forming a Travel System What They Mean for Individual Development, What They Promise for the Spread of Civilization, New York: Underwood & Underwood, 1909.
8. Rabinovitz, Lauren Abraham Geil ed., Memory Bytes. History, Technology, and Digital Culture, Duke University Press, 2004.
(二)中國遊記
1. Alexander, William Costume of China, Illustrated in Forty-Eight Coloured Engravings, London: William Miller, 1805.
2. Barry, Richard Port Arthur-A Monster Heroism, New York: Moffat, Yard & Company, 1905.
3. Mason, George Henry. The Punishments of China: Illustrated by Twenty-Two Engravings, With Explanations in English and French, London: William Miller, 1801.
4. Smith, Arthur H. China in Convulsion, New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1901.
5. Thomson, John Illustrations of China and Its People: A Series of Two Hundred Photographs, with Letterpress Descriptive of the Places and People Represented, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low, and Searle, 1874.
(三)風景研究
1. Mitchell, W. J. T. Landscape and Power, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
中文書目
(一)攝影史
1. 泰瑞.貝內特(Terry Bennett),《中國攝影史1842-1860》徐婷婷譯(北京:中國攝影出版社,2011。
2. 郭傑偉;范德珍編著,《丹青和影像:早期中國攝影》,香港:香港大學出版社,2012。
3. 詹姆斯.利卡爾頓著,徐廣宇譯,《1900,美國攝影師的中國照片日記》,福建教育出版社,2008。
4. 約翰.伯格(John Berger),《影像的閱讀》劉惠媛譯,臺北市:麥田出版,2017。
(二)中國近代史
1. 柯文(Paul A. Cohen)《歷史三調:作為事件、經歷和神話的義和團》杜繼東譯,南京:江蘇人民出版社,2000。
2. 尼爾.弗格森(Niall Ferguson),《文明:西方與非西方》黃煜文譯,新北市:廣場出版,2019。
3. 戴玄之,《義和團研究》,新北市:文海出版社,1967。
4. 陳志奇,《中國近代外交史》,台北:南天,1993。
5. 徐中約,《中國近代史綱上冊》,計秋楓、朱慶葆譯,香港:香港中文大學出版社,2001。
6. 呂超,《東方帝都:西方文化視野中的北京形象》,中國:山東畫報出版社,2008。
(一) 地圖集
1. 譚其驤主編,《中國歷史地圖集》,第八冊(清時期),香港:三聯書店,1992。
2. 《湖北輿地圖》,西安:西安地圖出版社,2005。
西文期刊文獻
1. Dean, Carolyn J. “Atrocity Photographs, Dignity, and Human Vulnerability” Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development, 6 (Summer, 2015): 239-264.
2. Elliott, Jean. “American photographs of the boxer rising”, History of Photography, 21 (1997): 162-169.
3. Fraser, Sarah E. “The Face of China: Photography′s Role in Shaping Image, 1860—1920,” Getty Research Journal, No. 2 (2010): 39-52.
4. Malin, Brenton J. “Looking White and Middle-Class: Stereoscopic Imagery and Technology in the Early Twentieth-Century United States,” Quarterly Journal of Speech Vol. 93 (Oct. 2007): 403-420.
5. Mathewson, Amy. “The (Mis)Representation of Reality: ‘Knowledge’ and Image-Making in Glass Lantern Slides of China” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 31(2021: April): 303-319.
6. Plunkett, John. “Selling stereoscope, 1890-1915: Penny arcades, automatic machines and American salesmen” Early Popular Visual Culture 6 (November, 2008): 239-255.
7. Pietrobruno, Sheenagh. “The Stereoscope and the miniature” , Early Popular Visual Culture 9 (August, 2011): 171-190.
8. Silverman, Robert J. “The Stereoscope and Photographic Depiction in the 19th Century”, Technology and Culture 34 (October, 1993): 729-756.
9. Thompson, Seth “Cultural Tourism through the Lens of the Stereoscope: Underwood & Underwood’s Egypt, A 1905 Boxed Stereoview Set, Considered” International Journal on Stereo & Immersive, Vol. 5 (December, 2021): 74-87.
10. Wade, Nicholas J. and Ono, Hiroshi. “Early studies of binocular and stereoscopic vision”, Japanese Psychological Research 54 (March, 2012): 54-70.
11. Zhang, Shiming. “Painting and Photography in Foreigners’ Construction of an Image of Qing Dynasty Law” Frontiers of History in China, 12 (2017): 32-74.
中文期刊文獻
1. 楊紅林,〈義和團時期西方影像背後的”中國觀”—以中國國家博物館藏詹姆斯.利卡爾頓攝立體照片為中心的考察〉,《中國國家博物館館刊》,第7期(2012),頁110-119。
2. 羅永明,〈中國國家博物館的老照片收藏〉,《文物天地》,第6期(2018),頁81-87。
3. 陳偉智,〈攝影作為民族誌方法:日治臺灣殖民地人類學寫真檔案〉,《現代美術學報》33期(2017.5),頁7-38。
4. 詹千惠,〈論清代廣州外銷化的商業性〉,《議藝份子》第十六期(2011.3),頁1-22。
雜誌
1. Holmes, Oliver Wendell. “The Stereoscope and the stereograph,” The Atlantic (Jun. 1859): 738-748.
2. Hunt, Robert. “The Stereoscope”The Art Journal (January, 1856 ): 118-120.
3. “How we know about James Ricalton”, Life, Vol. 61, No.16, (October 14, 1966) Editors’ Note: 5.
4. Meriweather, Lee. “A Tramp Trip to Europe. How to See Europe on Fifty Cents a day”, Outing (10 April 1887): 68-77.
5. Ricalton, James. “Travels on Next to Nothing,” Outing (10 April 1887): 49-51.
6. Ricalton, James. “A Steerage Trip to Europe”, Outing (10 May 1887): 151-156.
7. Ricalton, James. “A Schoolmaster’s Vacation. Life in the Steerage-Across the German Ocean and up the Coast of Norway”, Outing (10 June 1887): 223-231.
8. Ricalton, James. “Twelve Days Without a Sunset. Being an Account of my Voyage on the Arctic Ocean, Between Hammerfest and Archangel, Together with a visit to the Whale Abattoirs of Vardo”, Outing (10 July 1887): 315-323.
9. Ricalton, James. “My Travels on Next to Nothing. The Start Overland to St.Petersburg”, Outing (10 August 1887): 449 -459.
10. Ricalton, James. “My Travels on Next to Nothing. Through Russia in a Dormo-Cart”, Outing (10 September 1887): 560-571.
11. Ricalton, James. “My Travels on Next to Nothing. Through Russia in a Dormo-Cart”, Outing (10 October 1887): 50-63.
12. Ricalton, James. “The City of the Sacred Bo-Tree”, Scribner′s Magazine (November, 1891): 319-336.
13. Tedford, Pauline. “James Ricalton”, The Quarterly, Official Publication of the St. Lawrence County Historial Association, Fourth Bicentennial Issue, vol.XXI, No.4 (October, 1976): 18-19.
14. ”War photographers of the Old China Days”, Life, Vol. 61, No.13, (September 23, 1966) Editors’ Note: 5.
15. ”100 violent years thrust an ancient empire into the modern word and led to the turmoil of Mao’s Red rule”, Life, Vol. 61, No.13, (September 23, 1966): 61-85.
報紙
1. “How to Travel Cheaply; Experience of a Village Schoolmaster”, New York Times (November 30, 1884) p. 13, <https://www.nytimes.com/1884/11/30/archives/how-to-travel-cheaply-the-experiences-of-a-village-schoolmaster.html>
學位論文
1. Cabos, Marine. “Seeing through landscape : French photographic archives of China (1840s - 1930s)”, (Ph. D. thesis, Rutgers, SOAS, University of London, 2016).
2. DeLeskie, Robert. “The Underwood Stereograph Travel System: A Historical and Cultural Analysis,” (Unpublished Master thesis, Concordia University, 2000).
3. Kempler, Susan. “America Discovers the World: James Ricalton′s Travels on Next to Nothing. 1844-1929,” (Unpublished Ph. D. thesis, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 1991).
4. Ritchie, Jordan. “Underwood and Underwood Company: Early Twentieth Century Pioneers of American Photojournalism,” (Unpublished Master thesis, University of Maryland, 2019).
5. 謝敬慧,〈鄭觀應的商戰思想及其實踐〉(碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學歷史學系,2005)。
6. 趙元熙,〈選擇與呈現:威廉.亞歷山大《The Costume of China (1805)》中的西方視角〉(碩士論文,國立中央大學藝術學研究所,2018)。
7. 劉家琪,〈一八七一福爾摩沙顯影:John Thomson台灣攝影中的風景觀〉(碩士論文,國立師範大學美術研究所西洋美術史組,2009)。
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25. 張維晏,〈關於晚清的影像敘事:立體照與利卡爾頓的中國舊影(下)〉,漫遊藝術史﹕<https://arthistorystrolls.com/2022/04/15/%e9%97%9c%e6%96%bc%e6%99%9a%e6%b8%85%e7%9a%84%e5%bd%b1%e5%83%8f%e6%95%98%e4%ba%8b%ef%bc%9a%e7%ab%8b%e9%ab%94%e7%85%a7%e8%88%87%e5%88%a9%e5%8d%a1%e7%88%be%e9%a0%93%e7%9a%84%e4%b8%ad%e5%9c%8b%e8%88%8a-2/>
26. 江飛宇,〈美海軍部長重視歷史傳統,新艦名走復古風〉,中時新聞網:<https://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20210118005604-260417?chdtv>
27. 洪任輝:<https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E6%B4%AA%E4%BB%BB%E8%BE%89>
28. 天津條約:<https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E5%A4%A9%E6%B4%A5%E6%9D%A1%E7%BA%A6>
29. 銅鑼灣天后廟:<https://zh.m.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E9%8A%85%E9%91%BC%E7%81%A3%E5%A4%A9%E5%90%8E%E5%BB%9F>
指導教授 吳方正(Fang-Cheng Wu) 審核日期 2022-12-23
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