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姓名 洪明瑄(Ming-Hsuan Hung)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 學習與教學研究所
論文名稱 一般生與在職生合作型問題解決模式之實證研究:以資電學院實作課程為例
(A Study of Collaborative Problem Solving of Full-time Students and In-Service Students: The case of hands-on Course at the College of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science)
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摘要(中) 近年來,國際逐漸重視合作型問題解決能力的發展,學生需與不同的人進行合作,以解決實際發生的問題。再者,臺灣高等教育逐漸普及,但卻較少實證研究討論研究生與在職專班生的學習情形。因此,本研究將以合作型問題解決模式之學生實作設計行為研究為主軸,針對一般生與在職生合作型問題解決能力與實作歷程進行探究,同時也進一步分析學生在實作過程中的分工策略與合作特徵。本研究之研究問題為以下三項:
1. 一般生與在職生的合作型問題解決能力是否具有差異?
2. 在合作問題解決模式下,一般生與在職生展現哪些相似與相異之處?
3. 一般生與在職生的實作成品有何差異?
本研究以北部某國立大學資電學院課程為例,研究對象為26位一般生與32位在職生,運用量化與質性的研究方式進行三角檢證。量化研究採用美國萊斯大學心理系的Salas教授與其研究團隊研發及編製的團隊合作能力量表( Teamwork Competency Test,簡稱TWCT ),質性研究則運用半結構式深度訪談學生學習歷程、分析實作成品並進行專家訪談。問卷結果顯示,一般生與在職生的「解決衝突」、「進行決策」及「監督評估」三項能力具有顯著差異,而訪談也進一步驗證此結果。此外從學生與專家訪談結果可知兩類學生在合作分工、非正式溝通、提供意見回饋、反思與修正等方面亦具有差異。在實作成品方面,一般生製作的遊戲具備不同難易度及主題式關卡設計,適用各種年齡層的玩家;而在職生的遊戲則具備記錄學習或掌握成效的機制,方便教師應用於教學現場。
本研究依據文獻探討、TWCT量表、師生訪談與實作成品相互比對後,歸納出以下八項結論:(1)小組的溝通協調對於衝突解決相當重要、(2)時間與進度的壓力會影響進行決策的能力、(3)時間分配會影響小組彼此監督的成效、(4)小組的組成人數影響分工內容、(5)相處時間的多寡影響非正式溝通能力、(6)思考角度的差異影響反思與修正的能力、(7)批判能力的差異造成同儕互評的標準不一、(8)對於實作成品的態度影響其後續的發展。
本研究根據結論提出未來課程改善,第一,將在職生實作遊戲的形式改為重新設計現成遊戲的學習內容。第二,鼓勵在職生設計更貼近使用者需求之實作成品。第三,為一般生塑造教學的情境,達到實作之目的。最後提出3項未來研究之建議,第一,根據不同研究掌握學生分組人數的變數。第二,將TWCT量表的施測改為前後測,以了解兩類學生在合作型問題解決模式中的進步幅度。第三,將一般生與在職生進行異質分組,互相學習優點與補足劣勢。
摘要(英) In recent years, an increasing emphasis on the development of collaborative problem-solving ability has been placed internationally. Students need to learn to collaborate with people from other disciplines to solve issues in practical contexts. However, despite the increasing universalization of higher education in Taiwan, researches addressing the learning of full-time students and in-service students have been relatively few. This study will focus on students’ design behavior in the collaborative problem-solving approach, and investigate in the collaborative hands-on learning process of full-time students and in-service students. Furthermore, it analyzes the characteristics of collaborative strategies during the process. Hence, three research questions were examined:
1. Is there any difference between full-time students and in-service students in terms of collaborative problem-solving ability?
2. What similarities and differences between full-time students and in-service students are shown in the collaborative problem-solving model?
3. What are the differences between full-time students and in-service students in terms of completed work?
This study provides a case study of the course offered by the College of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science in a national university in northern Taiwan. The subjects were 26 full-time students and 32 in-service students. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to conduct triangulation. For quantitative analysis, this study adopted the Teamwork Competency Test (TWCT) developed and prepared by Prof. Eduardo Salas and his team at the Department Psychological Sciences, Rice University in the United States. For qualitative analysis, semi-structured in-depth interviews are employed to understand students’ learning processes, analyze finished products and conduct interviews with experts. First of all, questionnaire survey results show that the difference between full-time and in-service students is significant in TWCT categories including “conflict resolution,” “decision making,” and “monitoring and assessing.” Secondly, results of interviews with students and experts reveal that differences between these two types of students are found in four aspects including collaboration and work division, informal communication, comment and feedback, and reflection and correction. Regarding finished products, the games produced by full-time students feature designs of themed levels with varying difficulties, and are thus fit for players of all ages; while those produced by in-service students have mechanisms of recording learning process or tracking learning effect, thus facilitating the teachers’ in-class demonstrations.
Based on the results of TWCT questionnaire, the comparison between teacher/student interviews and the teachers’ evaluation of finished products, this study has made the following eight conclusions: (1) Group communication and coordination are extremely important in resolving conflicts; (2) time pressures affect students’ decision-making ability; (3) time allocation is a factor of the effectiveness of inter-group mutual supervision; (4) the size of group members is a factor of work division within the teams; (5) the teammates’ informal communication ability sometimes do affect their collaborative process ; (6) differences in various perspectives is a factor of reflection ability; (7) difference in critical ability leads to disparate criteria in peer review; (8) attitudes towards finished products influence further developments of their finished products.
This study hereby provides directions for future course improvement. First, for in-service student, it would be better to re-designing available games to become more user-friendly, rather than start designing games from the scratch. Secondly, it might be crucial to create real-life teaching scenarios for full-time students in order to make their products more practical. Finally, this study offers 3 suggestions for future studies. First, control the factor of the group size between full-time students and in-service students. Secondly, change the assessment of TWCT questionnaire to pre-text and post-text in order to understand the progresses of the two types of students before and after adopting the collaborative problem-solving approach. Thirdly, conduct heterogeneous grouping for full-time and in-service students to allow them to benefit from each other’s strengths and learn from each other’s shortcomings.
關鍵字(中) ★ 合作型問題解決能力
★ 實作課程
★ 一般生
★ 在職生
關鍵字(英) ★ collaborative problem-solving
★ hands-on course
★ full-time student
★ in-service student
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的與研究問題 3
第三節 名詞釋義 4
第四節 研究範圍與限制 5

第二章 文獻探討 7
第一節 合作型問題解決能力之內涵 7
第二節 合作型問題解決能力之評量工具 10
第三節 一般生與在職生的學習特徵 13

第三章 研究方法 17
第一節 研究設計與流程 17
第二節 研究對象與課程說明 20
第三節 研究工具 24
第四節 資料處理與分析 28

第四章 研究結果 31
第一節 一般生與在職生TWCT分數之差異 31
第二節 一般生與在職生在合作過程中的相似與相異處 37
第三節 一般生與在職生實作成品的分析 44

第五章 結論與建議 55
第一節 結論 55
第二節 建議 59

參考文獻 62
一、中文部分 62
二、西文部分 63

附錄 66
附錄一 TWCT中文版問卷 66
附錄二 TWCT英文版問卷 69
附錄三 學生訪談大綱 73
附錄四 教師訪談大綱 74
參考文獻 一、中文部分
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指導教授 張佩芬(Pei-Fen Chang) 審核日期 2019-8-20
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