|| G.V.R. Inc., Automotive electronics market to reach $279.96 billion by 2020, 2017. Available: https://sites.google.com/site/technologyresearchreport/automotive-electronics-market|
 H.J. Heider, M. Schallehn, C. Schlegel et al., An autonomous car roadmap for suppliers, 2017. Available: https://www.bain.com/insights/an-autonomous-car-roadmap-for-suppliers/
 D.S. Farquhar, A.M. Seman, and M.D. Poliks, "Manufacturing experience with high performance mixed dielectric circuit boards", IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., Vol, 22, pp. 153-159, 1999.
 X. Zhang, Galvanic corrosion, vol, 51, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
 Galvanic Corrosion, 2019. Available: https://structx.com/Material_Properties_001.html
 K. Xiao, X. Gao, L. Yan et al., "Atmospheric corrosion factors of printed circuit boards in a dry-heat desert environment: Salty dust and diurnal temperature difference", Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol, 336, pp. 92-101, 2018.
 M. Stratmann and H. Streckel, "On the atmospheric corrosion of metals which are covered with thin electrolyte layers 1. verification of the experimental-technique", Corrosion Science, Vol, 30, pp. 681-696, 1990.
 M. Jönsson, D. Persson, and C. Leygraf, "Atmospheric corrosion of field-exposed magnesium alloy AZ91D", Corrosion Science, Vol, 50, pp. 1406-1413, 2008.
 T. Kamimura, K. Kashima, K. Sugae et al., "The role of chloride ion on the atmospheric corrosion of steel and corrosion resistance of Sn-bearing steel", Corrosion Science, Vol, 62, pp. 34-41, 2012.
 I. Odnevall and C. Leygrarf, "The atmospheric corrosion of nickel in a rural atmosphere", Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol, 144, pp. 3518-3525, 1997.
 S. Jouen, M. Jean, and B. Hannoyer, "Atmospheric corrosion of nickel in various outdoor environments", Corrosion science, Vol, 46, pp. 499-514, 2004.
 E. Salahinejad, R. Eslami-Farsani, and L. Tayebi, "Corrosion failure analysis of printed circuit boards exposed to H2S-containing humid environments", Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol, 79, pp. 538-546, 2017.
 E. Salahinejad, R.E. Farsani, and L. Tayebi, "Synergistic galvanic-pitting corrosion of copper electrical pads treated with electroless nickel-phosphorus/immersion gold surface finish", Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol, 77, pp. 138-145, 2017.
 F. Farelas, Y. Choi, and S. Nešić, "Corrosion behavior of API 5L X65 carbon steel under supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide phases in the presence of water and sulfur dioxide", Corrosion, Vol, 69, pp. 243-250, 2012.
 N. Kladkaew, R. Idem, P. Tontiwachwuthikul et al., "Corrosion behavior of carbon steel in the monoethanolamine− H2O− CO2− O2− SO2 system: Products, reaction pathways, and kinetics", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol, 48, pp. 10169-10179, 2009.
 P.T. Vianco, "An overview of surface finishes and their role in printed circuit board solderability and solder joint performance", Circuit World, Vol, 25, pp. 6-24, 1999.
 K. Sweatman, "Hot air solder leveling in the lead-free era", Global SMT & Packaging, pp. 10-18, 2009.
 W.-S. Chao, W.-H. Wang, T.-C. Luo et al., "The comparison on the corrosion resistance of different kinds of PCB surface finishing: OSP, LF HASL and ENIG," 2012 7th International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference (IMPACT) pp. 159-162, 2012.
 D. Chang, F. Bai, Y. Wang et al., "The study of OSP as reliable surface finish of BGA substrate," Proceedings of 6th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference (EPTC 2004)(IEEE Cat. No. 04EX971) pp. 149-153, 2004.
 M. Ramirez, L. Henneken, and S. Virtanen, "Oxidation kinetics of thin copper films and wetting behaviour of copper and Organic Solderability Preservatives (OSP) with lead-free solder", Applied Surface Science, Vol, 257, pp. 6481-6488, 2011.
 K. Hannigan, M. Reid, M. Collins et al., "Corrosion of RoHS-Compliant surface finishes in corrosive mixed flowing gas environments", Journal of electronic materials, Vol, 41, pp. 611-623, 2012.
 台灣電路板產業學院, 電路板濕製程全書: 台灣電路板協會, 2005.
 林定皓, 高密度印刷電路板技術: 台灣電路板協會, 2004.
 K.N. Tu, Solder Joint Technology: Springer-Verlag New York, 2007.
 K.N. Tu, C. Chen, and A.T. Wu, Stress analysis of spontaneous Sn whisker growth, Lead-Free Electronic Solders, Springer2006, pp. 269-281.
 K.-N. Tu, J.-o. Suh, A.T.-C. Wu et al., "Mechanism and prevention of spontaneous tin whisker growth", Materials transactions, Vol, 46, pp. 2300-2308, 2005.
 H. Chen, H.Y. Lee, C.S. Ku et al., "Evolution of residual stress and qualitative analysis of Sn whiskers with various microstructures", Journal of materials science, Vol, 51, pp. 3600-3606, 2016.
 C.H. Su, H. Chen, H.-Y. Lee et al., "Kinetic analysis of spontaneous whisker growth on pre-treated surfaces with weak oxide", Journal of electronic materials, Vol, 43, pp. 3290-3295, 2014.
 C.H. Su, H. Chen, H.-Y. Lee et al., "Controlled positions and kinetic analysis of spontaneous tin whisker growth", Applied Physics Letters, Vol, 99, p. 131906, 2011.
 A.T. Wu and Y.C. Ding, "The suppression of tin whisker growth by the coating of tin oxide nano particles and surface treatment", Microelectronics Reliability, Vol, 49, pp. 318-322, 2009.
 G.J. Chou and R.D. Hilty, "Effects of lead-free surface finishes on press-fit connections," Proceedings of the IPC Annual Meeting pp. S07-2, 2003.
 N. Corman, M. Myers, and C. Copper, "Friction behavior of press-fit applications: test apparatus and methodology [connector pins]," Proceedings of the Forty-Ninth IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, 2003. pp. 38-44, 2003.
 W.H. Abbott, "The development and performance characteristics of mixed flowing gas test environment", IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, Vol, 11, pp. 22-35, 1988.
 R. Schueller, "Creep corrosion on lead-free printed circuit boards in high sulfur environments", SMTA News and Journal of Surface Mount Technology, Vol, 21, p. 21, 2008.
 D. Cullen, B. Kline, G. Moderhock et al., "Effects of surface finish on high-frequency signal loss using various substrate materials", CIRCUITREE-CAMPBELL-, Vol, 14, pp. 80-80, 2001.
 X. Wu, D. Cullen, G. Brist et al., "Surface finish effects on high-speed signal degradation", IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., Vol, 31, pp. 182-189, 2008.
 S.C. Thierauf, High-speed circuit board signal integrity: Artech House, 2017.
 W. Wang, A. Choubey, M.H. Azarian et al., "An assessment of immersion silver surface finish for lead-free electronics", Journal of electronic materials, Vol, 38, pp. 815-827, 2009.
 Y. Zhou and M. Pecht, "Investigation on mechanism of creep corrosion of immersion silver finished printed circuit board by clay tests," 2009 Proceedings of the 55th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts pp. 324-333, 2009.
 S. Zhang, M. Osterman, A. Shrivastava et al., "The influence of H2S exposure on immersion-silver-finished PCBs under mixed-flow gas testing", IEEE transactions on device and materials reliability, Vol, 10, pp. 71-81, 2009.
 G. Milad and R. Mayes, "Electroless nickel/immersion gold finishes for application to surface mount technology: A regenerative approach", Metal Finishing, Vol, 96, pp. 42-46, 1998.
 M. Goosey, "Factors influencing the formation of “black pad” in electroless nickel-immersion gold solderable finishes—a processing perspective", Circuit World, Vol, 28, pp. 36-39, 2002.
 K. Zeng, R. Stierman, D. Abbott et al., "Root cause of black pad failure of solder joints with electroless nickel/immersion gold plating," Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronics Systems, 2006. ITHERM′06. The Tenth Intersociety Conference on pp. 1111-1119, 2006.
 K.H. Kim, J. Yu, and J.H. Kim, "A corrosion couple experiment reproducing the black pad phenomenon found after the electroless nickel immersion gold process", Scripta Materialia, Vol, 63, pp. 508-511, 2010.
 H. Fu, D. Lee, J. Lee et al., "Creep corrosion failure analysis on ENIG printed circuit boards," 2015 10th International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference (IMPACT) pp. 124-129, 2015.
 S. Krumbein, "Corrosion through porous gold plate", IEEE Transactions on Parts, Materials and Packaging, Vol, 5, pp. 89-98, 1969.
 C. Maul, J.W. McBride, and J. Swingler, "Intermittency phenomena in electrical connectors", IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, Vol, 24, pp. 370-377, 2001.
 R. Martens and M.G. Pecht, "An investigation of the electrical contact resistance of corroded pore sites on gold plated surfaces", IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., Vol, 23, pp. 561-567, 2000.
 R.S. Mroczkowski, "Concerning reliability modeling of connectors," Electrical Contacts-1998. Proceedings of the Forty-Fourth IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts (Cat. No. 98CB36238) pp. 57-68, 1998.
 M. Reid, J. Punch, G. Grace et al., "Corrosion resistance of copper-coated contacts", Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol, 153, pp. B513-B517, 2006.
 C.C. Li, W.L. Shih, C.K. Chung et al., "Amorphous Pd layer as a highly effective oxidation barrier for surface finish of electronic terminals", Corrosion Science, Vol, 83, pp. 419-422, 2014.
 C.E. Ho, W.Z. Hsieh, P.T. Lee et al., "High-temperature stability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd (P)/Cu surface finishes", Applied Surface Science, Vol, 434, pp. 1353-1360, 2018.
 J. Balaraju, T.S. Narayanan, and S. Seshadri, "Electroless Ni–P composite coatings", Journal of applied electrochemistry, Vol, 33, pp. 807-816, 2003.
 N.N. Le, T.C.H. Phan, A.D. Le et al., "Optimization of copper electroplating process applied for microfabrication on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate", Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol, 6, p. 035007, 2015.
 C. Choe, C. Chen, S. Noh et al., "Thermal shock performance of DBA/AMB substrates plated by Ni and Ni–P layers for high-temperature applications of power device modules", Materials, Vol, 11, p. 2394, 2018.
 Q. Zhou, J. He, D. Sun et al., "Deformation and fracture of nickel phosphorus coatings", Scripta materialia, Vol, 54, pp. 603-608, 2006.
 W. Dai, C. Oropeza, K. Lian et al., "Experiment design and UV-LIGA microfabrication technology to study the fracture toughness of Ni microstructures", Microsystem technologies, Vol, 12, pp. 306-314, 2006.
 A. Roman, D. Chicot, and J. Lesage, "Indentation tests to determine the fracture toughness of nickel phosphorus coatings", Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol, 155, pp. 161-168, 2002.
 J. Tang and Y. Zuo, "Study on corrosion resistance of palladium films on 316L stainless steel by electroplating and electroless plating", Corrosion Science, Vol, 50, pp. 2873-2878, 2008.
 R. Elansezhian, B. Ramamoorthy, and P. Kesavan Nair, "Effect of surfactants on the mechanical properties of electroless (Ni–P) coating", Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol, 203, pp. 709-712, 2008.
 F. Sansoz, K.D. Stevenson, R. Govinthasamy et al., "Making the surface of nanocrystalline Ni on an Si substrate ultrasmooth by direct electrodeposition", Scripta Materialia, Vol, 59, pp. 103-106, 2008.
 A.M. Abdul-Lettif, "Investigation of interdiffusion in copper–nickel bilayer thin films", Physica B: Condensed Matter, Vol, 388, pp. 107-111, 2007.
 A. Aleshin, V. Egorov, B. Bokstein et al., "Study of diffusion in thin Au Cu films", Thin solid films, Vol, 223, pp. 51-55, 1993.
 J.A. Dean, Lange′s handbook of chemistry: New york; London: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999.
 G.G. Harman, Wire bonding in microelectronics: materials, processes, reliability and yield: McGraw-Hill, 1997.
 V.K. Murugan, Z. Jia, G.J. Syaranamual et al., "Atmospheric corrosion resistance of electroplated Ni/Ni–P/Au electronic contacts", Microelectronics Reliability, Vol, 60, pp. 84-92, 2016.
 K. Sasaki and G.T. Burstein, "The generation of surface roughness during slurry erosion-corrosion and its effect on the pitting potential", Corrosion Science, Vol, 38, pp. 2111-2120, 1996.
 T. Suter, Y. Müller, P. Schmutz et al., "Microelectrochemical studies of pit initiation on high purity and ultra high purity aluminum", Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol, 7, pp. 339-348, 2005.
 S. Sharland, "A review of the theoretical modelling of crevice and pitting corrosion", Corrosion science, Vol, 27, pp. 289-323, 1987.
 S.M. Lee, W.G. Lee, Y.H. Kim et al., "Surface roughness and the corrosion resistance of 21Cr ferritic stainless steel", Corrosion Science, Vol, 63, pp. 404-409, 2012.
 M.G. Fontana, Corrosion engineering: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2005.