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姓名 杜明(Pierre-Claude Duméus)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱 海地太子港都市區產生的城市固體廢物的能源潛力
(Energy potential of the municipal solid waste generated in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area of Haiti)
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摘要(中) 海地太子港都會區面臨嚴重的環境衛生問題,主要是由於缺乏妥善的都市固體廢物管理制度及尚無任何廢物回收或處理與處置設施。除此之外,海地在能源供應方面也面臨危機。迄今海地百分之75的能源是使用薪柴和木炭,該類能源的消耗有80%用於家庭的炊事上;而海地居民的電氣化只有38%。這些情況將使海地的環境加速惡化。
官方研究文件顯示,每天有653公噸都市固體廢物被運往太子港的露天垃圾掩埋場填埋,相信應該仍有數百噸垃圾無處可去。依據收集之調查資料發現,海地都市垃圾的有機成分達73.8% (重量比),垃圾含水量高達73%。本研究旨在探討適用於海地的廢物能源回收技術,並估算太子港大都會區垃圾回收其潛在能源的數量。
本研究採用多屬性決策評估技術 (SMART),指定的評估基準是能源潛力、環境效益、經濟效益和社會效益,並邀請七位環境工程與能源方面的專家參與評估三個廢棄物能源回收技術:焚化法、厭氧消化法及掩埋氣體回收法。專家決策評估結果以厭氧消化法被賦予最高的偏好,但只比掩埋氣體回收法稍高一點。本研究基於經濟效益和固體廢物最終處置的考慮,最終決定選擇掩埋氣體回收法應用於太子港大都市區都市廢棄物之能源回收技術。
經過計算,自掩埋場回收氣體的能源於16年內可產生約2.23億立方公尺的甲烷,足以產生約5.85億千瓦的電力,這種能源出售給電網,使海地太子港市區居民的用電率提高約5%。
摘要(英) The Port-au-Prince metropolitan area of Haiti has serious environmental sanitation issues due to the lack of proper municipal solid waste management system and the absence of any waste recovery or treatment and disposal facilities. In addition, the nation is also facing an energy crisis in the supply of energy resources. Today 75 percent of Haiti’s energy consumption is met by fuel wood and charcoal of which 80% are used in households especially for cooking, and the electrification rate is merely 38% of the people who have access to electricity. These situations will contribute to accelerate the degradation of the environment in Haiti.
Official studies revealed that 653 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) are delivered daily into the open dumping site in Port-au-Prince, and it is believed that there still have hundreds of tons of refuse that are gone nowhere. This study found that the composition of MSW stream in Haiti has high biodegradable organic content by 73.8% by weight, and 73% by weight of moisture content. This research aims to estimate the amount of potential energy of MSW in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area that can be recovered by using the most feasible and economical Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technology.
A Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART), which is used to figure out multiple attribute in the identified problems associated with a number of alternatives and discrete preference rating, was processed to assess three (3) WtE technologies: incineration, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas to energy. The specified evaluation criteria are energy potential, environmental, economic, and social benefits. By using the SMART for supporting decision making, seven experts in the fields of environmental engineering and energy participated in refining the criteria and selecting the WtE technologies in their evaluation. The anaerobic digestion was given the highest preference, but only was a little bit higher than the technology “landfill gas to energy”. However, based on the consideration of economy and solid waste disposal, the final decision in this study selected the landfill gas to energy instead of anaerobic digestion for Port-au-Prince metropolitan area.
Through the estimation from the recovery of a landfill gas to energy system, approximately 223 million cubic meters of methane can be generated over 16 years in the landfill, which can generate about 585-millions kilowatt-hours of electricity. This energy can be sold to the power grid to increase to about 5% the access rate of electric power for residents of the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area in Haiti.
關鍵字(中) ★ 都市固體廢棄物
★ 簡易多屬性決策評估技術
★ 廢棄物能源回收技術
★ 厭氧消化法
★ 掩埋回收氣體法
關鍵字(英) ★ Municipal solid waste
★ Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART)
★ WtE technology
★ Anaerobic digestion
★ landfill gas to energy
論文目次 Abstract i
List of tables vii
List of figures viii
Abbreviations: ix
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Background 1
1.2. Objective of the study 2
1.3. Scope of the study 3
1.4. Statement of the problems 3
1.4.1. Energy policy in Haiti 3
1.4.2. The issue of energy use in Haiti 5
2. Methodology 8
3. Literature review 13
3.1. Solid waste composition 13
3.2. MSWM: Challenges in developing countries 15
3.2.1. Rapid urbanization and population growth 15
3.2.2. Legislation and policies 16
3.3. Integrated solid waste management (ISWM) 17
3.4. Hierarchy of ISWM 18
3.5. The concept of CE in waste management 20
3.6. WtE Technologies 20
3.6.1. Incineration 21
3.6.2. Gasification and pyrolysis 27
3.6.3. Plasma-based technology 28
3.6.4. Aerobic digestion 30
3.6.5. Anaerobic digestion 31
3.6.6. Landfill gas to energy 39
4. Results and discussion 46
4.1. Waste composition 46
4.2. Waste generation 48
4.3. Feasibility assessment of energy recovery technology 50
4.3.1. Overall judgments and value assessments 50
4.3.2. Tradeoff and decision 51
4.4. Estimation of the energy potential 53
4.5. Discussion 61
5. Conclusion 68
6. References 73
Appendix A: Waste Sort Analysis (Source: UNOPS & NREL) 77
Appendix B: Truck Monitoring Study (Source: UNOPS) 80
Appendix C: Questionnaire Form of SMART process for surveying the energy potential vs. municipal solid waste 83
Appendix D: Raw data from the respondents 87
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指導教授 廖萬里(Wan-Li, Liao) 審核日期 2019-6-26
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