博碩士論文 106424016 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:16 、訪客IP:3.236.59.63
姓名 林幸萱(Hsing-Hsuan Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 產業經濟研究所
論文名稱 雲端跨境資料傳輸管制政策之探討
(Regulating Cross-Border Data Flow in the Era of Cloud Computing)
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摘要(中) 雲端運算(cloud computing)為一種大量且可擴充之電腦運算技術,透過網際網路,提供使用者各類型軟硬體資源,其高效能、高彈性,以及快速便捷之特性,受到大量用戶喜好。雲端服務已大幅改變人們儲存與處理資料之方式,從既有的本地儲存,移轉至雲上世界。而為了支持系統運營與承載巨量資料運算,雲端服務業者於不同國家設置數個資料中心以進行資料之處理與儲存。此等「異地儲存」之型態,使雲端之個人資料經常脫離其母國法律之地域管轄。資料經傳輸至他國後,其所受之隱私保護若不及於原先母國之標準,可能形成對於個人資料隱私保護之危險。
為保障個人資料於雲端各地資料中心流動之隱私與安全,歐盟等諸多國家原則禁止跨境資料傳輸,惟我國個資法則採相當寬鬆之原則允許制。欲探究如何保護雲端個人資料跨境傳輸之安全,本文以使用者所在地為母國,依資料中心所在地將雲端服務區分為四種情境。分別將四種情境置於歐盟GDPR與我國個資法檢視何時構成跨境傳輸,並分析歐盟與我國跨境傳輸管制政策之優劣。
限制資料跨境傳輸有其利弊,不同利益取捨,難謂有完美之道,惟就我國而言,限制傳輸係屬必要。近年來若干雲端服務業者將資料中心設置於隱私保護標準顯著低於我國之國家,蓋因我國未限制跨境傳輸,倘該等業者未為妥善保護措施或未經資料主體同意,逕將資料跨境傳輸至缺乏隱私保護之國家,我國資料主體之隱私遭受侵害時,將難以主張其權利。
因此,本文建議個資法當務之急應先釐清跨境傳輸之定義,並適當限制資料跨境傳輸。參考歐盟之政策,建立屬於我國之資料保護分級名單,依資料傳輸至不同層級之國家予以不同程度之限制。而為了在保護個人隱私之餘,同時顧及資料流通之需求與利益,本文羅列數項例外允許傳輸之條件,提供未來立法者參考。
摘要(英) Cloud computing is a type of technique that can storage and process massive demands of data through the Internet. With its high flexibility and expansibility, cloud computing has soon become popular taste. It has changed the way people store and process data, from local storage into the world of cloud. In order to sustain monumental computing, cloud provider usually deploy several data centers in different countries around the world. This came into the result of transmitting data almost every moment in cloud computing. When personal data being stored or processed in the cloud, it might imperil the privacy of personal data.
EU and some other countries restrict transferring data outside one′s jurisdiction, so as to protect information privacy of data subjects. By contrast, Personal Data Protection Act in our nation adopts a fairly loose principle of allowance. In purpose of finding how to maintain personal data protection in the cloud, this paper sets out four scenarios of cloud computing. The four scenarios are respectively placed under GDPR and Personal Data Protection Act to examine what scenario constitutes data transfer. Restricting data transfer has its own pros and cons, it′s hard to say there exit a perfect law policy that can fit in every country. By analyzing two different cogitations of policy (whether to restrict or not), this paper aims to find the best policy for our nation.
This thesis argues our nation has the urgency to restrict personal data transfer. Recently, some cloud providers start to deploy their data centers in countries where it certainly lacks of data protection and privacy care. If we don′t restrict transferring data outside foreign countries, once the data subject gets hurt by unsafe transfer, he or she can hardly claim one’s rights.
Therefore, in order to protect data subject, this paper suggests to restrict data transfer, and sets several ways for permitting transfer. With EU policy as reference, we can establish a data protection classification list of our nation, and restrict or ban data transmission to countries with low data protection levels. While protecting the individuals’ privacy, the needs of keeping data flow should be taken into account too, this paper proposes several methods that exceptionally allow transfer.
關鍵字(中) ★ 隱私權
★ 個人資料保護
★ 跨境傳輸
★ 雲端服務
★ 資料安全
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 1 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的與問題意識 3
1.3 研究方法與限制 4
1.4 名詞定義 4
1.5 研究架構 5
2 雲端服務的現況與問題 7
2.1 雲端服務與雲端運算 7
2.1.1 三種服務類型 9
2.1.2 四種部署模式 10
2.1.3 雲端資料傳輸安全問題 12
2.2 個人資料保護於雲端資料傳輸之困難 14
2.2.1 科技設計思維迥異於法律 15
2.2.2 隱私權本質抽象 15
2.2.3 隱私權與其他利益之取捨 16
2.2.4 國家政府與科技巨人之結合 17
2.3 研究主要參考對象 19
2.3.1 雲端資料傳輸限制政策 19
2.3.2 歐盟與我國之相似性 20
2.4 基本情境設定 23
3 歐盟跨境資料傳輸法制分析 27
3.1 雲端資料之定性 28
3.1.1 去識別化資料 29
3.1.2 加密資料 30
3.1.3 切分資料 30
3.2 跨境傳輸之定義 31
3.3 雲端服務業者之法律地位 32
3.3.1 雲端服務業者為資料控管者 33
3.3.2 雲端服務業者為資料處理者 33
3.4 四種基礎情境分析 34
3.4.1 情境一 34
3.4.2 情境二 36
3.4.3 情境三 38
3.4.4 情境四 39
3.4.5 雲端階層關係 46
3.4.6 情境分析綜合討論 46
3.5 歐盟跨境資料傳輸限制 47
3.5.1 目的地資料保護適足性獲認可 (Adequacy Decision) 48
3.5.2 採行適當防護措施 (Appropriate Safeguards) 48
3.5.3 例外條款 (Derogations) 49
4 歐盟跨境資料傳輸政策之分析 53
4.1 基本管制政策 53
4.1.1 基本管制政策之類型 53
4.1.2 基本管制政策之論辯 54
4.2 政策執行概況與優劣分析 67
4.2.1 充足保護水準 (適足性) 67
4.2.2 適當防護措施執行概況 70
4.2.3 例外豁免條款認定標準 74
4.3 資料控制權與資料加密 75
5 我國跨境資料傳輸法制與分析 79
5.1 我國法制環境下的雲端服務 79
5.1.1 我國跨境資料傳輸之定義 79
5.1.2 雲端服務業者之法律地位 79
5.2 構成跨境處理之雲端情境 81
5.2.1 情境一 81
5.2.2 情境二 83
5.2.3 情境三 85
5.2.4 情境四 85
5.3 我國跨境傳輸政策之闕漏 89
5.3.1 定義與認定標準模糊 89
5.3.2 跨境傳輸管制鬆散 89
5.4 我國限制跨境傳輸之必要 90
5.4.1 雲端服務於我國之實際情況 90
5.4.2 未限制傳輸之具體風險 91
5.5 我國跨境傳輸政策之改善方向 94
5.5.1 我國有別於歐盟之特性 94
5.5.2 政策改善方向之建議 95
6 結論 101
參 考 文 獻 105
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BEUC, Privacy Shield: Strong and Shiny or Porous and Rusty?, BEUC (Feb. 5, 2016), https://www.beuc.eu/press-media/news-events/privacy-shield-strong-and-shiny-or-porous-and-rusty.

Cadwalladr, Carole & Emma Graham-Harrison, Revealed: 50 Million Facebook Profiles Harvested for Cambridge Analytica in Major Data Breach, THE GUARDIAN (2018), https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/mar/17/cambridge-analytica-facebook-influence-us-election

Collier, Kevin, Does the NSA’s PRISM Spying Program Violate EU Law?, DAILY DOT (Dec. 11, 2015), https://www.dailydot.com/news/prism-nsa-government-surveillance-europe-law/.

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Gartner Inc., Gartner Forecasts Worldwide Public Cloud Revenue to Grow 17.5 Percent in 2019, GARTNER.COM (April. 2, 2019), https://www.gartner.com/en/newsroom/press-releases/2019-04-02-gartner-forecasts-worldwide-public-cloud-revenue-to-g

Gartner Inc., Cloud Computing, GARTNER.COM http://www.gartner.com/it-glossary/cloud-computing/

Greenfield, Marlene, Distribution of Twitter Users Worldwide from 2012 to 2018, by Region, STATISTA (May. 27, 2014), https://www.statista.com/statistics/303684/regional-twitter-user-distribution/

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Mass, Framingham, Cloud it Infrastructure Revenues Surpassed Traditional it Infrastructure Revenues for the First Time in the Third Quarter of 2018, According to IDC, IDC (Jan. 1, 2019), https://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS44670519

Moerel, Lokke, Binding Corporate Rules, GDPR.BE.BLOG, https://gdpr.be/english/binding-corporate-rules/.

Perlroth, Nicole, Yahoo Says Hackers Stole Data on 500 Million Users in 2014, N.Y. Times, Sept. 22, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/23/technology/yahoo-hackers.html

Proust, Olivier, Why BCR are the Future of Global Data Flows - Privacy, Security and Information Law, FIELDFISHER, https://privacylawblog.fieldfisher.com/2017/why-bcr-are-the-future-of-global-data-flows.

Samuels, David, Is Big Tech Merging with Big Brother? Kinda Looks Like It, WIRED (2019), https://www.wired.com/story/is-big-tech-merging-with-big-brother-kinda-looks-like-it/
指導教授 王明禮(Ming-Li Wang) 審核日期 2020-1-20
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