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姓名 亨利(Dorian Henry Fiallos Mejia)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 應用地質研究所
論文名稱 臺灣屏東平原飲水接觸人體健康風險的空間分析
(Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan′s Pingtung Plain)
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摘要(中) 自然環境污染是一種被視為對人類健康有害的情況,這種情況常常暴露於特定地理區域的化學物質,尤其是受人類活動影響的化學物質。長期的地下水質量調查顯示,台灣南部屏東平原地下水的20%明顯受到砷,鎘,鉻,鉛,錳和氮氧化物濃度的測量,超過了建議的最大可接受水攝入量。世界衛生組織。屏東平原除了用於家庭活動的用水外,還有很高的農業活動。為了確定健康風險管理的重要性,努力評估與受污染的飲用水中攝入有害化學物質有關的健康風險。 。為此目的,進行人體健康風險評估的傳統方法可能有限,本研究採用地質統計學克里格法對屏東平原飲用地下水攝取有害化學物質所帶來的健康風險進行空間分析。根據危險指數(HQ)和目標癌症風險(TR)評估健康風險。結果表明,大多數總部超過1的區域位於研究區的西南部。因此,應嚴格避免在這些地方使用地下水飲用。此外,還提供了描繪具有高TR值和高人口密度的區域的地圖,以及顯示所有致癌物質污染物的癌症曲線圖。
摘要(英) Natural environmental contamination is a situation regarded as harmful for human health which are routine expose to chemicals that are present in a particular geographical area, especially as affected by human activity. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with measured As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn and NO_3 concentrations in excess of the maximum accepted levels of water ingestion recommended by the World Health Organization. Pingtung Plain has a high agriculture activity in addition of the water use for domestic activities, Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of harmful chemicals from the contaminated drinking water need for a particular purpose in order to determine the importance for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be limited for this purpose, this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting harmful chemicals through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR). The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these locations should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided in addition a cancer curve diagram to display all carcinogen chemicals contamination.
關鍵字(中) ★ 環境的
★ 污染
★ 人類健康風險
★ 危險商
★ 目標風險
★ 砷
關鍵字(英) ★ environmental
★ contamination
★ human health risk
★ Pingtung Plain
★ Arsenic
★ groundwater
論文目次 Abstract i
Acknowledgments iii
Content iv
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Motivation 1
1.2 The literature review 3
1.2.1 Groundwater Quality in the area 6
1.2.2 Carcinogen Effects 7
1.2.3 Non Carcinogen Effects 10
1.3 Objective of study 11
1.4 Methodology Framework 12
Chapter 2 Methodology 13
2.1 Study Area 13
2.2 Geo statistical approach 15
2.3 Human Health Risk Assessment 17
Chapter 3 Results and discussion 19
3.1 Data Collection 19
3.2 Spatial Distribution of chemical concentrations 23
3.3 Spatial chemical concentrations Risk Assessment and Health Risk Implications 30
3.4 Target Risk Maps 36
3.5 Discussion 37
Chapter 4 39
Conclusions 39
References 40

List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Methodology framework follow to accomplish the Spatial Analysis of human health risk………………………………………………………………………………………………..12
Figure 2.1 Shows the respectively different Aquifers and Aquitards in the Pingtung Plan……….14
Figure 2.2 Land use for the different Human activities in the Pingtung Plain, the use of groundwater for fishponds and agriculture is the most common in the area…………………………………….15
Figure 2.3 Kriging Variogram……………………………………………………………………16
Figure 2.4 Experimental semi-variogram where c0 is the nugget effect; c is the sill and a is the range……………………………………………………………………………………………...16
Figure 2.5 Geostatistical Kriging interpolation…………………………………………………..17
Figure 2.6 Human Health Risk assessment equations, Hazard quotient and Daily intake………...17
Figure 2.7 Health Risk for carcinogenic exposure equation base on the Target Risk……………..18
Figure 3.1 As concentrations in the 4 different aquifers in the Pingtung Plain. ………………..………………………………....…………………………………………24
Figure 3. 2 Cr concentrations in the 4 different aquifers in the Pingtung Plain……………………25
Figure 3. 3 Fe concentrations in the 4 different aquifers in the Pingtung Plain……………………26
Figure 3. 4 NO3 concentrations in the 4 different aquifers in the Pingtung Plain…………………27
Figure 3. 5 Mn concentrations in the 4 different aquifers in the Pingtung Plain…………………..28
Figure 3. 6 Pb concentrations in the 4 different aquifers in the Pingtung Plain…………………...29
Figure 3. 7 Pingtung Plain human density………………………………………………………..30
Figure 3. 8 Cr well water concentrations in the 4 different aquifers………………………………31
Figure 3. 9 Fe well water concentrations in the 4 different aquifers………………………………32
Figure 3. 10 Mn well water concentrations in the 4 different aquifers…………………………….33
Figure 3. 11 Pb well water concentrations in the 4 different aquifers……………………………..34
Figure 3. 12 The 4 different Aquifers are show in this figures where the HQ is higher than 1 is represented in red color affecting the population that lives in the areas…………………………..35
Figure 3. 13 Different Aquifers showing the TR where red means a high exposure to cancer risk and green a below average exposure……………………………………………………………...36





List of Tables
Table 1.1 Previous studies about relation groundwater contamination…………………………….6
Table 3.1 Concentration of groundwater quality parameters for each monitoring well Aquifer 1..19
Table 3.2 Concentration of groundwater quality parameters for each monitoring well Aquifer 2..20
Table 3.3 Concentration of groundwater quality parameters for each monitoring well Aquifer 3..21
Table 3.4 Concentration of groundwater quality parameters for each monitoring well Aquifer 4..22
Table 3. 5 Shows a sample from aquifer 1 using the OK method applied to the wells and each of the parameters found in the groundwater we can obtain the HQ………………………………….37
Table 3.6 Sample of the Aquifer 1 TR equation values to SUM and determine if its below or above the acceptable parameter of TR…………………………………………………………………..38
Table 3. 7 Shows the different parameters for reference dose and cancer slope factor from the different concentrations use in the HQ and TR equations. CSF is only use for TR which is related to cancer exposure………………………………………………………………………………..38
Table 3. 8 Shows the different values use for the HQ and TR equations used with the different well parameters in the 4 aquifers in the Pingtung Plain in Taiwan. (C.P. Liang., 2017)………………..38
參考文獻 References
Agency, U. E. (2005). Guidelines for Carcinogen. Washington, DC .
C.P. Liang. (2018). Spatial analysis of the risk to human health from exposure to arsenic contaminated groundwater: A kriging approach. Science of The Total Environment, 11.
C.P. Liang. (2017). Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8.
Giménez, M. (2013). Assessment of Heavy Metals Concentration in Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater of the Chaco Plain, Argentina. ISRN Environmental Chemistry, 12.
Han, D. (2017). Spatial distribution, risk assessment and source identification of heavy metals in sediments of the Yangtze River Estuary, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin.
Howard, P. (1985). McGraw-Hill Series in Water Resources and Environmental Engineering. In Environmental Engineering. . San Francisco: McGraw-Hill.
J.A.Navoni. (2014). Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: Study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina. Science of the Total Environment.
Liang, C. (2016). Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment of the Pingtung Plain in Southern Taiwan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.
Liang, C. (2018). Science of the Total Environment. Spatial analysis of the risk to human health from exposure to arsenic contaminated groundwater: A kriging approach .
Loria, K. (2016, May 27). https://www.businessinsider.com. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/almost-everything-causes-cancer-2016-5
Lynne Eldridge, M. (2019). Carcinogen Types, Testing, and Examples. Very Well Health.
MM, H. (2011). Application of geostatistics with Indicator Kriging for analyzing spatial variability of groundwater arsenic concentrations in Southwest Bangladesh. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.
Sakizadeh, M. (2017). A New Method for Spatial Health Risk Assessment of Pollutants. Iranian Journal of Toxicology.
WHO. (2009). www.who.int. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/water-quality/guidelines/chemicals/potassium-fs-new.pdf
Wu, J. (2016). Evaluation of Shallow Groundwater Contamination and Associated Human Health Risk in an Alluvial Plain Impacted by Agricultural and Industrial Activities, Mid-west China. Exposure and Health.
指導教授 陳瑞昇(Jui-Sheng Chen) 審核日期 2020-1-9
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