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姓名 亢瓦迪(Condrowati)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱
(Difference and Relationship between Voluntary and Involuntary Inhibition in Elderly and Young Groups)
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摘要(中) 抑制是一種核心的執行功能,並且在理論上可區分為自主和非自主兩種類型。自主抑制需要有意識的過程和主動抑制,而非自主抑制則是在無意識的情況下進行並且不能主動發起。本研究的目的是在評估自主抑制和非自主抑制在老年與年輕組間的表現差異,以及兩類抑制彼此間之關係與老化關聯性。所有受試者(年輕人:21.9±1.14歲,N = 41;老年人:66±5.45歲,N = 41)完成了自主(停止訊號作業和執行/不執行作業)和非自主(負向促發作業和回向抑制作業)的任務。結果顯示年輕組的停止信號反應時間較短,並在go-go與no go-go 反應時間之間的差異較大,這表示自主抑制機制的表現較強。而相反的,NP和IOR的效應在年齡組之間並沒有顯著差異。此外,所有的抑制作用之間的相關分析結果顯示年輕人的自主和非自主任務之間的相關性較弱,而老年組則沒有相關性。進一步分析反應時間分布結果發現,老年與年輕組相比顯示出較慢的集中趨勢(central tendency)、有較大的變異數和較高的右尾度 (right-tailedness)。總結來看,本研究結果顯示自主抑制比非自主抑制對老化更敏感,並且對認知老化的去分化理論(De-differentiation Theory)提出質疑。

關鍵詞:自主和非自主抑制;認知老化;反應時間分布分析
摘要(英) Inhibition is a core executive function and can be theoretically categorized into voluntary and involuntary. Whereas voluntary inhibition requires conscious process and active suppression, involuntary inhibition proceeds unconsciously and cannot be actively initiated. The aims of the current study were to assess the age difference and relationship between voluntary and involuntary inhibition across age groups. All participants (young: 21.9±1.14 yrs, N= 41; elderly: 66±5.45 yrs, N= 41) completed voluntary (Stop Signal and Go/NoGo) and involuntary (Negative Priming and Inhibition of Return) tasks. The results revealed that the young group had shorter stop-signal RT and larger difference between go-go and nogo-go RT, indicating stronger manifestation of voluntary inhibitory mechanism. In contrast, there was no significant difference between age groups in NP and IOR effects. In addition, the results of the correlations across inhibitory effects of all inhibitory tasks showed weak correlation between voluntary and involuntary tasks in the young but no correlation in the elderly group. Further analysis on RT distributions revealed that the elderly group showed slower central tendency, larger variance, and higher extent of right-tailedness than the young group. Taken together, the results suggested that voluntary inhibition is more sensitive to aging than involuntary inhibition, and raised questions about the scope of the de-differentiation theory of cognitive aging.

Keywords: voluntary and involuntary inhibition; cognitive aging; distribution analysis of reaction time
關鍵字(中) ★ 自主和非自主抑制
★ 認知老化
★ 反應時間分布分析
關鍵字(英) ★ voluntary and involuntary inhibition
★ cognitive aging
★ distribution analysis of reaction time
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS


ABSTRACT i
摘要 ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
LIST OF FIGURES v
LIST OF TABLE vii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Voluntary and Involuntary Inhibition 1
1.2 Experimental Paradigms in Voluntary and Involuntary Inhibition 2
1.3 Impact of Aging in Inhibition 5
1.4 Distributional Analysis of Reaction Time 8
1.5 Aims of Current Study 9
CHAPTER 2 METHOD 11
2.1 Participants 11
2.2 Apparatus 11
2.3 Tasks 12
2.3.1 Stop Signal Task 12
2.3.2 Go/NoGo Task 13
2.3.3 Negative Priming Task 14
2.3.4 Inhibition of Return Task 15
2.4 Procedures 16
2.5 Dependent Measures and Data Analyses 17
2.5.1 Stop signal task 17
2.5.2 Go/NoGo task 18
2.5.3 Negative priming task 18
2.5.4 Inhibition of return task 18
2.5.5 Relationship between voluntary and involuntary inhibition 18
2.5.6 Analysis of response time distribution using Ex-Gaussian approach 19
2.6 Hypotheses 19
CHAPTER 3 RESULTS 21
3.1 Age differences in performance of voluntary and involuntary inhibition 21
3.1.1 Age difference in voluntary inhibition 21
3.1.2 Age difference in involuntary inhibition 26
3.2 Relationship between voluntary and involuntary inhibition 30
3.3 Distributional Analyses on RT Performance 37
3.3.1 Age difference in mu, tau, and sigma of the Go/NoGo task 37
3.3.2 Age difference in mu, tau, and sigma of the IOR task 40
3.3.3 Age difference in mu, tau, and sigma of the NP task 42
CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION 46
4.1 Age difference in performance in voluntary and involuntary inhibition 46
4.2 Relationships between voluntary and involuntary inhibition 49
4.3 Ex-Gaussian distributions across groups in response time performance 52
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 54
REFERENCES 55
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指導教授 張智宏(Erik Chihhung Chang) 審核日期 2019-7-23
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