|| (a) M. Freitag, J. Teuscher, Y. Saygili, X. Zhang, F. Giordano, P. Liska, J. Hua, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel and A. Hagfeldt, "Dye-sensitized solar cells for efficient power generation under ambient lighting" Nat. Photon. 2017, 11, 372–378; (b) C. Y. Chen, T. Y. Kuo, C. W. Huang, Z. H. Jian, P. T. Hsiao, C. L. Wang, J. C. Lin, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Chen, Y. L. Tung, M. C. Tsai, K. M. Huang, C. M. Chen, C. W. Hsu, Y. C. Chen, Z. Pei, Y. S. Tingare, H. H. Chou, C. Y. Yeh, C. Y. Lin, Y. L. Lee, H. W. Lin, H. F. Meng, P. T. Chou and C. G. Wu, "Thermal and angular dependence of next-generation photovoltaics under indoor lighting" Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 2020, 28, 111−121.|
 (a) "https://www.nrel.gov/grid/solar-resource/spectra-am1.5.html"; (b) "http://www.laserfbcusworld.com/lasers-sources/articles/ 16566681/photovoltaics-measuring-the-sun".
 E. Becquerel, "Mémoire sur les effets électriques produits sous l′influence des rayons solaires" C. R. Acad. Sci. 1839, 9, 561–567.
 J. Wu, Z. Lan, J. Lin, M. Huang, Y. Huang, L. Fan and G. Luo, "Electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells" Chem. Rev. 2015, 115, 2136–2173.
 M. A. Green, E. D. Dunlop, J. H. Ebinger, M. Yoshita, N. Kopidakis and X. Hao, "Solar cell efficiency tables (version 59)" Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 2022, 30, 3–12.
 H. Tsubomura, M. Matsumura, Y. Nomura and T. Amamiya, "Dye sensitised zinc oxide: aqueous electrolyte: Platinum photocell" Nature 1976, 261, 402–403.
 B. Regan and M. Grätzel, "A low cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films" Nature 1991, 353, 737–740.
 J. Wu, Z. Lan, J. Lin, M. Huang and Y. Huang, "Counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells" Chem. Soc. Rev. 2017, 46, 5975–6023.
 A. Hagfeldt, G. Boschloo, L. Sun, L. Kloo and H. Pettersson, "Dye-sensitized solar cells" Chem. Rev. 2010, 110, 6595–6663.
 K. Kakiage, Y. Aoyama, T. Yano, K. Oya, J. Fujisawa and M. Hanaya, "Highly-efficient dye-sensitized solar cells with collaborative sensitization by silyl-anchor and carboxy-anchor dyes" Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 15894–15897.
 C. Y. Chen, M. Wang, J. Y. Li, N. Pootrakulchote, L. Alibabaei, C. H. Ngocle, J. D. Decoppet, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J. H. Tsai, C. Grätzel, C. G. Wu and M. Grätzel, "Highly efficient light-harvesting ruthenium sensitizer for thin-film dye-sensitized solar cells" ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 3103–3109.
 Q. Yu, Y. Wang, Z. Yi, N. Zu, J. Zhang, M. Zhang and P. Wang, "High-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells: The influence of lithium ions on exciton dissociation, charge recombination, and surface states" ACS Nano, 2010, 4, 6032–6038.
 S. Yun, P. D. Lund and A. Hinsch, "Stability assessment of alternative platinum free counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells" Energy Environ. Sci. 2015, 8, 3495–3514.
 S. I. Yun, Y. Qin, A. R. Uhl, N. Vlachopoulos, M. Yin, D.D. Li, X. G. Han and A. Hagfeldt " New-generation integrated devices based on dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cells", Energy Environ. Sci.,2018, 11, 476−525.
 (a) M. K. Nazeeruddin, S. M. Zakeeruddin and K. Kalyanasundaram, " Enhanced Intensities of the Ligand-to-Metal Charge-Transfer Transitions in Ru(III) and Os(III) Complexes of Substituted Bipyridines " J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 9607-9612 . (b) M. E. Kober and T. J. Meyer, " An electronic structural model for the emitting MLCT excited states of Ru(bpy)32+ and Os(bpy)32+ " Inorg. Chem. 1984, 23, 4587−4598.
 M. E. Kober, T. J. Meyer, J. V. Casper and B. P. Sullivan, "Synthetic routes to new polypyridyl complexes of osmium(II)" Inorg. Chem. 1988, 27, 4587–4598.
 G. Sauve, M. E. Cass, g. Coia, S. J. Doig, I. Lauermann, K. E. Pomykal and N. S. Lewis, "Dye sensitization of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide with osmium and ruthenium polypyridyl complexes" J. Phys. Chem. B, 2000, 104, 6821–6836.
 R. Argazzi, G. Larramona, C. Contado and C. A. Bignozzi, "Preparation and photoelectrochemical characterization of a red sensitive osmium complex containing 4,4’,4’’-tricarboxy2,2’:6’,2’’-terpyridine and cyanide ligands" J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chemistry, 2004, 164, 15–21.
 A. Anthonysamy, S. Balasubramanian, B. Muthuraaman and P. Maruthamuthu, "4 -functionalized 2,2’:6’,2’’ terpyridine ruthenium (II) complex: A nanocrystalline TiO2 based solar cell sensitizer" Nanotechnology, 2007, 18, 095701.
 M. Kimura, J. Masuo, Y. Tohata, K. Obuchi, N. Masaki, T. N. Murakami, N. Koumura, K. Hara, A. Fukui, R. Yamanaka and S. Mori, "Improvement of TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface conditions by positional change of alkyl chains in modified panchromatic Ru complex dyes" Chem. Eur. J. 2013, 19, 1028–1034.
 Y. Numata, S. P. Singh, A. Islam, M. Iwamura, A. Imai, K. Nozaki and L. Han, "Enhanced light-harvesting capability of a panchromatic Ru (II) sensitizer based on π-extended terpyridine with a 4-methylstyryl group for dye-sensitized solar cells" Adv. Funct. Mater. 2013, 23, 1817–1823.
 G. Koyyada, V. Botla, S. Thogiti, G. H. Wu, J. Z. Li, X. Q. Fang, F. T. Kong, S. Y. Dai, N. Surukonti, B. Kotamarthia and C. Malapaka, "Novel 4’-functionalized 4,4’’-dicarboxyterpyridine ligands for ruthenium complexes: near-IR sensitization in dye sensitized solar cells" Dalton Trans. 2014, 43, 14992–15003.
 S. S. M. Fernandes, M. Belsley, C. Ciarrocchi, M. Licchelli and M. M. M. Raposo, "Terpyridine derivatives functionalized with (hetero)aromatic groups and the corresponding Ru complexes: synthesis and characterization as SHG chromophores" j. dyepigm, 2017, 150, 49–58.
 S. H. Yang, K. L. Wu, Y. Chi, Y. M. Cheng and P. T. Chou, "Tris (thiocyanate) ruthenium (II) sensitizers with functionalized dicarboxyterpyridine for dye-sensitized solar cells" Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 8270–8274.
 H. W. Lin, Y.-S. Wang, Z. Y. Huang, Y. M. Lin, C. W. Chen, S. H. Yang, K. L. Wu, Y. Chi, S. H. Liu and P. T. Chou, "Origins of device performance in dicarboxyterpyridine Ru (II) dye-sensitized solar cells" Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2012, 14, 14190–14950.
 H. Ozawa, T. Kuroda, S. Harada and H. Arakawa, "Efficient ruthenium sensitizer with a terpyridine ligand having a hexylthiophene unit for dye-sensitized solar cells: Effects of the substituent position on the solar cell performance" Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2014, 2014, 4734–4739.
 C.Y. Chen, Y. Y. Fen, T. Y. Wu, Y. C. Liu, S. Y. Chen, T. Y. Lin, H. S. Tsai and C. G. Wu, "Terpyridyl ruthenium complexes functionalized with conjugated heterocycles for panchromatic dye-sensitized solar cells" ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2021, 4, 13461−13470.
 C. C. Chou, K. L. Wu, Y. Chi, W. P. Hu, S. J. Yu, G. H. Lee, C. L. Lin and P. T. Chou, "Ruthenium(II) sensitizers with heteroleptic tridentate chelates for dye-sensitized solar cells", Angew. Chem., 2011, 123, 2102−2106.
 K. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, C. C. Chou, Y. C. Chou, H. A. Pan, Y. Chi and P. T. Chou, "Engineering of osmium(II)-based light absorbers for dye-sensitized solar cells " Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2012, 51, 5642−5646.
 F. C. Hu, S. W. Wang, M. Planells, N. Robertson, H. Padhy, B. Du, Y. Chi, P. F. Yang, H. W. Lin, G. H. Lee and P. T. Chou, “Design of OsII-based sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells: Influence of heterocyclic ancillaries” ChemSusChem, 2013, 6, 1366−1375.
 B. C. O’Regan, K. Walley, M. Juozapavicius, A. Anderson, F. Matar, T. Ghaddar, S. M. Zakeeruddin, C. Klein and J. R. Durrant, "Structure/function relationships in dyes for solar energy conversion: a two-atom change in dye structure and the mechanism for its effect on cell voltage" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 3541–3548.
 T. Kinoshita, J. I. Fujisawa, J. Nakazaki, S. Uchida, T. Kubo and H. Segawa, "Enhancement of near-IR photoelectric conversion in dye-sensitized solar cells using an osmium sensitizer with strong spin-forbidden transition" J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3, 394−398.
 R. Juwita, J. Y. Lin, Y. C. Liu, T. Y. Wu, Y. M. Feng, C. Y. Chen, H. H. Tsai and C. G. Wu, "Osmium sensitizer with enhanced spin–orbit coupling for panchromatic dye-sensitized solar cells" J. Mater. Chem. A, 2020, 8, 12361–12369.
 M. K. Nazeeruddin, E. Baranoff and M. Grätzel, "Dye-sensitized solar cells: A brief overview" Solar Energy, 2011, 85, 1172–1178.
 J. F. Yin, M. Velayudham, D. Bhattacharya, H. C. Lin and K. L. Lu, "Structure optimization of ruthenium photosensitizers for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells – A goal toward a “bright” future" COORD. Chem. Rev. 2012, 256, 3008–3035.
 O. Kohle, S. Ruile and M. Grätzel, "Ruthenium(II) charge-transfer sensitizers containing 4,4’-dicarboxy-2,2’-bipyridine. synthesis, properties, and bonding mode of coordinated thio- and seleno-cyanates" Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35, 4779−4787.
 S. Altobello, R. Argazzi, S. Caramori, C. Contado, S. Da Fre, P. Rubino, C. Chone, G. Larramona and C. A. Bignozzi, " Sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 with black absorbers based on Os and Ru polypyridine complexes" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 15342–15343.
 Y. L. Chen, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, K. C. Hwang, S. B. Kumar, Y. H. Hu, Y. M. Cheng, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, G. H. Lee, S. J. Yeh and C. T. Chen, "Synthesis, characterization, and photophysical properties of Os(II) diimine complexes [Os(N^N)(CO)2I2] (N^N = bipyridine, phenanthroline, and pyridyl benzoxazole)" Inorg. Chem. 2005, 44, 4287−4294.
 Y. L. Chen, C. Sinha, I. C. Chen, K. L. Liu, Y. Chi, J. K. Yu, P. T. Chou and T. H. Lu, "Synthesis and characterization of luminescent osmium(II) carbonyl complexes based on chelating dibenzoyl-methanate and halide ligands" Chem. Commun. 2003, 3046–3047.
 B. D. Rossenaar, D. J. Stufkens and A. Vlček Jr, "Halide-dependent change of the lowest-excited-state character from MLCT to XLCT for the complexes Re(X)(CO)3(a-diimine) (X = Cl, Br, I; a-diimine = bpy, iPr-PyCa, iPr-DAB) studied by resonance Raman, time-resolved absorption, and emission spectroscopy " Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35, 2902−2909.
 M. Jakonen, P. Hirva, M. Haukka, S. Chardon-Noblat, F. Lafolet, J. Chauvin and A. Deronzier," An alternative synthesis method for [Os(NN)(CO)2X2] complexes (NN = 2,2’-bipyridine, 4,4’ -dimethyl-2,2’-bipyridine; X = Cl, Br, I). Electrochemical and photochemical properties and behavior" Dalton Trans. 2007, 3314–3324.
 Y. Fu, A. Habtemariam, A. M. Pizarro, S. H. van Rijt, D. J. Healey, P. A. Cooper, S. D. Shnyder, G. J. Clarkson and P. J. Sadler, "Organometallic osmium arene complexes with potent cancer cell cytotoxicity" J. Med. Chem. 2010, 53, 8192–8196.
 S. D. Shnyder, Y. Fu, A. Habtemariam, S. H. van Rijt, P. A. Cooper, P. M. Loadmana and P. J. Sadler, "Anti-colorectal cancer activity of an organometallic osmium arene azopyridine complex" Med. Chem. Commun. 2011, 2, 666–668.
 J. P. C. Coverdale, C. S. Guy, H. E. Bridgewater, R. J. Needham, E. Fullam and P. J. Sadler, "Osmium–arene complexes with high potency towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis" Metallomics 2021, 13, 1–8.
 A. C. Onicha, 2010, Submitted to the graduate college of bowling green state university in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy, Heteroleptic osmium(II) polypyridine complexes and carbazole-based chromophores as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells.
 T. Fiedler, 2011, The Faculty of Natural Sciences at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg to obtain the doctoral degree. Syntheses of gyroscope-like osmium complexes and cage-like diphosphines.
 G. Wolfbauer, A. M. Bond and D. R. MacFarlane, " Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies on the oxidation of the cis-(Et2-dcbpy)2RuX2 series of photovoltaic sensitizer precursor complexes (Et2-dcbpy) 2,2-bipyridine-4,4-diethoxydicarboxylic acid, X = Cl-, I-, NCS-, CN-)" Inorg. Chem. 1999, 38, 3836–3846.
 T. Katoh , Y. Ogawa, Y. Ohta and T. Yokozawa, "Synthesis of polyester by means of polycondensation of diolester and dicarboxylic acid ester through ester–esterexchange reaction" J. Polym. Sci. 2021, 59, 787–797.
 C. H. Chen, Y. C. Hsu, H. H. Chou, K. R. J. Thomas, J. T. Lin and Chao-Ping Hsu, "Dipolar compounds containing fluorene and a heteroaromatic ring as the conjugating bridge for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells" Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 3184 – 3193.
 V. V. Pavlishchuk, A. W. Addison, "Conversion constants for redox potentials measured versusdifferent reference electrodes in acetonitrile solutions at 25°C" Inorganica Chim. Acta, 2000, 298, 97–102.