博碩士論文 107226027 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:14 、訪客IP:3.235.11.178
姓名 李宇翔(Yu-Hsiang Lee)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 光電科學與工程學系
論文名稱 歐規單一光學反光鏡之高亮度近遠燈研究
(Study of Single Optical Reflector for High-intense High/Low Beam Meeting UNECE No.113 Regulation)
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   至系統瀏覽論文 (2025-7-1以後開放)
摘要(中) 本論文中,我們以通過聯合國歐洲經濟委員會 (the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, UNECE) 制定的Regulation No. 113 Revision 3 Class B機車近遠燈法規及德國自行車近遠燈法規 (StVZO 22A TA23,K-mark) 作為設計目標。首先,我們針對多款市售高功率車規白光LED光源來分析其光學特性,在考量其光學特性及成本後,選定最符合需求的LED光源,並以達到市售同級最小的燈具尺寸進行設計。本設計雖然為單一反光鏡,但須通過近光燈與遠光燈的法規,同時提供發散角約30度的道路照明。
本論文所設計與驗證之反光鏡Designed300不僅通過UNECE No.113 Class B近遠燈法規,同時也通過K-mark近遠燈法規;最後完成的尺寸為35 mm × 69 mm × 30 mm (高×寬×深)、光學效率達83.4%、十公尺處最大照度Emax達280 lx、截止線線性度為±0.1度、銳利度達0.94、投射於法規面之光學有效利用率 (Optical Utilization Factor, OUF) 為38.0%、投射於路面 (Roadway) 之光學有效利用率為36.7%、設計中總光學有效利用率為74.7%。以我們的最佳知識所悉,此近遠燈為世界目前唯一同時實證通過E-mark與K-mark的單一反光鏡設計,可說是同級車前燈產品之世界最佳表現。
摘要(英) In this thesis, we aim to design a white LED head lamp to meet Regulation No. 113 Revision 3 Class B (by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, UNECE), and Germany regulation of StVZO 22A TA23 (so called K-mark). In order to design a headlamp with the smallest size, we start from checking several high-quality power white LED and analyze the optical characteristic, and then select a most appropriate one with considering the performance and cost. The design is on a single optical reflector, but needs to meet the both regulations in low beam and high beam as well. Besides, an additional benefit to a rider is to provide ground illumination with a divergent beam of 30o.
Finally, we design and demonstrate a reflector (Designed300) which successfully meet the low beam and high beam regulations of UNECE No.113 Class B and K-mark. The final specifications are reported : the dimensions of are 35 mm × 69 mm × 30 mm (hight×length×depth), the optical efficiency is 83.4%, the maximum illuminance at a distance of 10 m reaches 280 lx, the linearity of the cutoff line is ±0.1o, the sharpness reaches 0.94, the optical utilization factor on the target plane (ground) is 38% (36.7%), and the total optical utilization factor reaches 74.7%. To our best knowledge, our headlamp is the only one meeting the low/high beam regulation of E-mark and K mark in the world, i.e., it can be regarded the best performance in the world.
關鍵字(中) ★ 單一光學反光鏡
★ 近光燈
★ 遠光燈
★ 光學設計
★ K-mark
★ E-mark
關鍵字(英) ★ Single optical reflector
★ low beam
★ high beam
★ optic design
★ K-mark
★ E-mark
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iv
目錄 vi
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 xix
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 市售通過 K-mark、E-mark法規檢測之車頭燈一覽 6
1-2-1市售通過 K-mark 之電動自行車車頭燈 6
1-2-2市售通過 UNECE No.113近遠燈之摩托車車頭燈 9
1-3 論文大綱 11
第二章 基礎原理 12
2-1 光學設計之基本原理 12
2-1-1 幾何光學 13
2-1-2 中場擬合法 15
2-2 光度學 17
第三章 LED車前燈照明規範 22
3-1歐洲UNECE規範No. 113法規 24
3-2德國 StVZO 22A No. 23法規 30
第四章 光學反光鏡應用於車前燈 35
4-1 LED光源簡介 35
4-2 光學反光鏡對於光場之調製能力 37
4-3 初階光學設計 39
第五章 多款車前燈通過 UNECE CLASS B及 STVZO之光學特性設計與
驗證 41
5-1照度達 150 lx 之近光燈光學設計 42
5-1-1 UNECE No.113 Class B規範檢測 42
5-1-2 K-mark 規範檢測 45
5-1-3 反射杯樣品驗證 47
5-2 照度達 250 lx 之近光燈光學設計 50
5-2-1 UNECE No.113 Class B規範檢測 53
5-2-2 K-mark 規範檢測 57
5-2-3 道路照明檢測 59
5-2-4 反射杯樣品驗證 60
5-3 照度達 300 lx 之近遠燈光學設計 64
5-3-1 UNECE No.113 Class B規範檢測 65
5-3-2 K-mark 規範檢測 74
5-3-3 道路照明檢測 78
5-3-4 反射杯樣品驗證 82
5-3-5 組裝公差與容忍度分析 96
第六章 結論 116
參考文獻 120
中英文名詞對照表 124
參考文獻 J. K. Cooney, R. J. Law, V. Matschke, A. B. Lemmey, J. P. Moore, Y. Ahmad, J. G. Jones, P. Maddison, and J. M. Thom, “Benefits of exercise in rheumatoid arthritis,” J. Aging Res. 2011, 681640 (2011).
2. J. Vina, F. Sanchis-Gomar, V. Martinez-Bello, and M. C. Gomez-Cabrera, “Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise,” Br. J. Pharmacol 167, 1-12 (2012).
3. M. A. Febbraio, “Exercise metabolism in 2016: Health benefits of exercise - more than meets the eye!” Nat. Rev. Endocrinol 13, 72-74 (2017).
4. I. Momken, L. Stevens, A. Bergouignan, D. Desplanches, F. Rudwill, I. Chery, A. Zahariev, S. Zahn, T. P. Stein, J. L. Sebedio, E. Pujos-Guillot, M. Falempin, C. Simon, V. Coxam, T. Andrianjafiniony, G. Gauquelin-Koch, F. Picquet, and S. Blanc, “Resveratrol prevents the wasting disorders of mechanical unloading by acting as a physical exercise mimetic in the rat,” FASEB J. 25, 3646-3660 (2011).
5. R. W. Motl, and B. M. Sandroff, “Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis,” Curr. Neurol. Neurosci. Rep. 15, 62 (2015).
6. M. Roizen, “The Exercise Pill — Too Good to Be True?” Yearbook of Anesthesiology and Pain Management 2009, 318-319 (2009).
7. K. R. Sechrist, S. N. Walker, and N. J. Pender, “Development and psychometric evaluation of the exercise benefits/barriers scale,” Research in nursing & health 10, 357-365 (1987).
8. A. Matsakas, and V. A. Narkar, “Endurance exercise mimetics in skeletal muscle,” Current sports medicine reports 9, 227-232 (2010).
9. G. D. Curfman, “The Health Benefits of Exercise--A Critical Reappraisal,” Mass Medical Soc., (1993).
10. L. L. Craft, and F. M. Perna, “The benefits of exercise for the clinically depressed,” Primary care companion to the Journal of clinical psychiatry 6, 104 (2004).
11. S. R. Chekroud, R. Gueorguieva, A. B. Zheutlin, M. Paulus, H. M. Krumholz, J. H. Krystal, and A. M. Chekroud, “Association between physical exercise and mental health in 12 million individuals in the USA between 2011 and 2015: a cross-sectional study,” The Lancet Psychiatry 5, 739-746 (2018).
12. 何家沂,台灣單車乘「風」而「行」,cast net第248期,(2016)。
13. Joachim Hofer, “Why 2020 will be the year of e-bikes,” Handelsblatt, (2020).
14. J. Oortwijn, “European parliament on maximizing potential of cycling,” BIKE europe Connecting Professionals, (2016).
15. 文婧,歐洲騎車是享受更是尊嚴,新紀元周刊第098期,(2008)。
16. 林芷揚,腳踏車運動風氣盛+退休金制度佳!荷蘭人快樂退休,長壽又健康,今周刊,(2018)。
17. 龔維德,荷蘭自行車生活與文化,荷事生非,(2014)。
18. Katrin Terpitz and Florian Kolf, “German e-bike bonanza recharges a sector’s fortunes,” Handelsblatt, (2019).
19. 經濟學人,巴黎要向汽車說掰掰?,天下雜誌第632期,(2017)
20. 陳仕洲,移動性污染源排放廢氣中戴奧辛/呋喃之特徵,國立成功大學環境工程所博士論文,中華民國九十七年。
21. 陳宜佳,汽車排放空氣污染物控制對策減量評估研究,國立成功大學環境工程所碩士論文,中華民國八十九年。
22. C. J. Chou, Y. Y. Wang, and K. S. Chen, “Cyclist′s daily cycling experiences, leisure involvement and travel demand preference,” Asia Pacific J. Tour. Res. 7, 71-89 (2012).
23. 劉喜臨,從單車到超商提袋 最強觀光是生活,天下雜誌第667期,(2019)。
24. Jeff Balton, “Bike Statistics & Facts For 2020,” Bicycle Guider, (2020).
25. John MacArthur, Michael Harpool, Daniel Scheppke and Christopher R. Cherry, “A north American survey of electric bicycle owners,” National Institute for Transportation and Communities, NITC-RR-1041, (2018).
26. 臺灣自行車輸出同業公會編輯部,品牌競逐美國電動自行車進口量增,TBA自行車會訊雙月刊第268期,(2019)。
27. 張蕙娟,看未來市場新視角,TBA自行車會訊雙月刊第267期,(2019)。
28. Joachim Hofer, “E-bike instead of company car: Ex-car manager Luksch wants to get commuters to switch,” Handelsblatt, (2020).
29. Jérôme Valentin, “E-Bike Sales Also Boomed in France Last Year,” BIKE europe Connecting Professionals, (2019).
30. Joachim Hofer, “E-bike instead of company car: Ex-car manager Luksch wants to get commuters to switch,” Handelsblatt, (2020).
31. James McKnight, “Where will eMTbs be in 5 years?” Red Bull, (2020).
32. 行政院主計總處資料:
https://www1.stat.gov.tw/public/Data/910217172DBU1BWDH.pdf.
33. Gregory Titelman, “Random House Dictionary of Popular Proverbs and Sayings,” Random House Reference 1st edition, (1996).
34. Wikipedia website, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicycle_lighting#History.
35. Supernova website, https://supernova-lights.com/supernova/.
36. Wikipedia website, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Busch_%26_M%C3%BCller.
37. BUSCH + MÜLLER website, https://www.bumm.de/de/.
38. Schmidt Original Nabendynamo website, https://nabendynamo.de/en/.
39. LEZYNE website, https://ride.lezyne.com/.
40. C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma, Y. L. Lee, and S. M. Huang, “Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2193-2195 (2006).
41. W. T. Chien, C. C. Sun, and I. Moreno, “Precise optical model of multi-chip white LEDs,” Opt. Express 15, 7572–7577 (2007).
42. C. C. Sun, W. T. Chien, I. Moreno, C. C. Hsieh, and Y. C. Lo, “ Analysis of the far-field region of LEDs,” Opt. Express 17, 13918-13927 (2009).
43. 陳觀宇,高光效多功能LED遠距離投射燈之研究,國立中央大學光電所碩士論文,中華民國一百零七年。.
44. E. Hecht, Optics, 4th eds. (Addison Wesley, San Francisco, 2002).
45. V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations: Part I Ray Geometrical Optics (SPIE PRESS, Washington, 1998).
46. BRO ASAP, http://www.breault.com/software/asap-features.
47. CIE 1988 2° spectral luminous efficiency functions of photopic vision, CIE Publication No. 86 (1988b).
48. 大田登,色彩工程學:理論與應用,全華圖書股份有限公司,中華民國九十七年。
49. A. M. Colman, A Dictionary of Psychology (Oxford University Press, 2009).
50. 孫慶成,光電工程概論,全華圖書股份有限公司,中華民國一百零一年。
51. 臺灣監理法規檢索系統,車輛型式安全及品質一致性審驗作業要點, https://www.mvdis.gov.tw/webMvdisLaw/LawContent.aspx?LawID=B0023012.
52. UNECE website, http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs101-120.html.
53. Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt, StVZO 22A No. 23,
https://www.kba.de/DE/Home/ home_node.html.
54. H. J. Round, “A Note on Carborundum, Electrical World 19, 309-310(1907),” Electric World 19, 309-310 (1907).
55. N. Holonyak and S. F. Bevaqua, “Coherent (visible) light emission from Ga(As1–xPx) Junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 82 (1962).
56. S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN based light emitters and lasers (Spinger, 1997).
57. Y. Shimizu, K. Sakano, Y. Noguchi, and T. Moriguchi, “Light emitting device having a nitride compound semiconductor and a phosphor containing a garnet fluorescent material,” United States Patent, US5998925 (1999).
58. 黃孟嬌,全球暨我國LED照明發展趨勢,台灣綠色產業報告(經濟部推動綠色貿易辦公室),2017。
59. M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 1-10 (2005).
60. 孫慶成,LED 的效率極限與照明光學設計的極致,LED固態照明研討會論文集,中華民國九十八年。
61. 楊凱宇,高功率 LED 之歐規自行車前燈設計,國立中央大學光電所碩士論文,中華民國九十八年。
62. 馮世典,德規 LED 自行車前燈光學設計與驗證,國立中央大學光電所碩士論文,中華民國一百年。
63. 吳健君,LED 投射聚光型燈具與封裝晶粒大小之關係,國立中央大學光電所碩士論文,中華民國一百零二年。
64. 蔡直佑,高光效多功能LED投射光形之研究,國立中央大學光電所博士論文,中華民國一百零四年。
65. 蔡明修,增加高對比度LED車燈生產容忍度之光學設計研究,國立中央大學光電所博士論文,中華民國一百零七年。
66. 陳觀宇,高光效遠距離投射燈之研究,國立中央大學光電所碩士論文,中華民國一百零七年。
67. 吳同,失效LED車頭燈的截止線光形重建之研究,國立中央大學光電所碩士論文,中華民國一百零八年。
68. Osram website, https://www.osram.com/ecat/OSLON%C2%AE%20Black%20Flat%20KW%20H3L531.TE/com/en/class_pim_web_catalog_103489/global/prd_pim_device_2190829/.
69. C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207-4210 (2012).
指導教授 楊宗勳 孫慶成(Tsung-Hsun Yang Ching-Cherng Sun) 審核日期 2020-8-11
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明