博碩士論文 107326025 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:15 、訪客IP:100.28.227.63
姓名 王靖萱(Ching-Hsuan Wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 2017~2019年臺灣都市PM2.5金屬元素健康風險評估
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摘要(中) 國際癌症協會宣告PM2.5 (指氣動直徑小於或等於2.5 μm懸浮微粒)及微粒重金屬Cr、As、Ni、Cd和Pb對人體具有致癌風險。本文引用2017年至2019年在環保署花蓮、板橋、忠明、斗六、嘉義和小港測站採樣的PM2.5數據,探討金屬元素與PM2.5質量濃度相關程度、時間變化趨勢,及健康風險的時空變化,然後使用條件雙變量機率函數(Conditional Bivariate Probability Function, CBPF)評估金屬元素健康風險發生機率值較高的區位。
結果顯示金屬元素是來自於PM2.5,但各測站金屬元素濃度相當微量,在PM2.5質量濃度占比3~4%,兩者線性相關係數數值介於0.5至0.6間。六個測站以Al、Fe、Na、Mg、K和Ca六個金屬元素有較高濃度,愈往南部的測站金屬元素濃度愈高。非致癌風險金屬元素的危害商數(Hazard Quotient, HQ)由高至低為Mn> V> Co> Ba> Se,有少數測站及樣本Mn的HQ> 1,各測站四季危害指標(Hazard Index, HI)則都在美國環保署提供的安全範圍內(< 1)。致癌金屬的致癌風險(Carcinogenic Risk, CR)由高至低為Cr (VI)> As> Ni> Cd> Pb,Cr (Ⅵ)的CR在各測站普遍超出閾值(1.00×10-6),雖然總致癌風險(Total Carcinogenic Risk, TCR)仍在美國環保署提供的可容忍範圍內(< 1.00×10-4)。
各測站以CBPF結合污染源區位,花蓮、忠明、斗六、嘉義、小港測站在東北東至西北方向,板橋測站在西南西方向,有超過金屬元素健康風險閾值機率較高的區位,普遍是受到移動和固定污染源影響。小港測站HI和TCR超過健康風險閾值區位的機率數值在各測站最高,花蓮測站則低很多。
摘要(英) The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) declared that PM2.5 (referring to fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 2.5 μm) and heavy metals Cr, As, Ni, Cd, and Pb pose carcinogenic risks to human health. This study used PM2.5 sampling data from six monitoring stations named Hualien, Banqiao, Zhongming, Douliu, Chiayi, and Xiaogang, collected between 2017 and 2019 by the Environmental Protection Administration. The study aims to explore the correlation between metal elements and PM2.5 mass concentrations, their temporal variations, and the spatiotemporal variations of these metal elements in health risks. The Conditional Bivariate Probability Function (CBPF) is further employed to assess locations with higher occurring probabilities of health risks associated with metal elements.
The results show that metal elements originate from PM2.5, but their concentrations at each station are relatively low, accounting for approximately 3-4% of the PM2.5 mass concentration. The linear correlation coefficient between metal elements and PM2.5 falls between 0.5 and 0.6. Among the six stations, Al, Fe, Na, Mg, K, and Ca exhibit higher metal element concentrations, with levels increasing when moving southwards. The non-carcinogenic metal elements are ranked in order of Hazard Quotient (HQ) from high to low: Mn > V > Co > Ba > Se. A few stations and sampling days have HQ values for Mn exceeding 1, while the Hazard Index (HI) for all stations throughout the seasons remains within the safe range (<1) set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Regarding carcinogenic metal elements, the Carcinogenic Risk (CR) ranks from high to low: Cr (VI) > As > Ni > Cd > Pb. The CR for Cr (VI) generally surpasses the threshold (1.00×10-6) at all stations. However, the Total Carcinogenic Risk (TCR) remains within the acceptable range provided by the US EPA (<1.00×10-4).
By combining the CBPF with pollution source locations, the probability of higher health risks associated with metal elements is identified in the northeast-east to northwest direction for Hualien, Zhongming, Douliu, Chiayi, and Xiaogang stations, and in the southwest-west direction for Banqiao station. These locations are commonly affected by mobile and stationary pollution sources. The probability values of exceeding health risk thresholds for both HI and TCR are highest at the Xiaogang station, while Hualien station shows much lower probabilities.
關鍵字(中) ★ 細懸浮微粒(PM2.5)、PM2.5金屬元素健康風險、高健康風險污染源區位
★ 細懸浮微粒(PM2.5)
★ PM2.5金屬元素健康風險
★ 高健康風險污染源區位
關鍵字(英) ★ Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), Health risks of PM2.5 metal elements, High health risk of source locations
★ Fine particulate matter (PM2.5)
★ Health risks of PM2.5 metal elements
★ High health risk of source locations
論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 細懸浮微粒(PM2.5)及重金屬形成來源 4
2.2 金屬和金屬元素比值 7
2.3 細懸浮微粒(PM2.5)對環境及人體健康的危害 18
2.3.1 非致癌風險及致癌風險 28
2.3.2 金屬毒性對建康的影響探討 32
2.3.3 鉻的來源及毒性差異 36
2.4 條件雙變量機率函數(Conditional bivariate probability function, CBPF) 38
第三章 研究方法 39
3.1 採樣時間與地點 40
3.2 採樣季節 41
3.3 六個採樣測站 42
3.4 細懸浮微粒質量濃度採樣器 44
3.4.1 Met One型號E-FRM採樣器 44
3.4.2 MetOne SASS採樣器 45
3.5 細懸浮微粒質量濃度分析方法 47
3.5.1 質量濃度秤重分析 47
3.5.2 氣膠金屬成分分析 48
3.6 風險評估 53
3.6.1 危害識別 54
3.6.2 劑量-反應評估 54
3.6.3 暴露評估 54
3.6.4 健康風險 55
3.7 模式推估條件雙變量機率函數(Conditional Bivariate Probability Function, CBPF) 58
第四章 結果與討論 60
4.1 金屬元素與PM2.5質量濃度在不同時間及季節的變化趨勢 61
4.1.1 金屬元素濃度總和與PM2.5質量濃度的直線相關性分析 61
4.1.2 金屬元素分類濃度總和與PM2.5質量濃度關係 66
4.1.3 花蓮測站 68
4.1.4 板橋測站 71
4.1.5 忠明測站 74
4.1.6 斗六測站 77
4.1.7 嘉義測站 80
4.1.8 小港測站 83
4.2 健康風險季節變化趨勢 87
4.2.1 非致癌健康風險金屬元素季節變化 87
4.2.2 致癌健康風險金屬元素季節變化 96
4.3 推論臺灣六個測站金屬元素健康風險污染來源區位 104
4.3.1 花蓮測站金屬元素非致癌及致癌健康風險超出閾值的CBPF機率 108
4.3.2 板橋測站金屬元素非致癌及致癌健康風險超出閾值的CBPF機率 110
4.3.3 忠明測站金屬元素非致癌及致癌健康風險超出閾值的CBPF機率 113
4.3.4 斗六測站金屬元素非致癌及致癌健康風險超出閾值的CBPF機率 117
4.3.5 嘉義測站金屬元素非致癌及致癌健康風險超出閾值的CBPF機率 119
4.3.6 小港測站金屬元素非致癌及致癌健康風險超出閾值的CBPF機率 122
4.3.7 臺灣六個測站HI和TCR超出閾值CBPF機率 129
第五章 結論與建議 137
5.1 結論 137
5.2 建議 139
參考文獻 140
附錄一、2017年至2019年各測站金屬元素濃度總和與PM2.5高濃度日 166
附錄二、六個測站較高的三種分類金屬元素濃度 174
附錄三、2017年至2019年高PM2.5質量濃度日逆推氣流軌跡 175
附錄四、六個測站四季HQ和CR 197
附錄五、致癌風險金屬元素及高於健康風險的日子 199
附錄六、各測站金屬元素(含給定風向風速發生小時< 100CBPF空間分布圖 207
附錄七、忠明測站篩選>16小時盛行西北風(海風)樣本 217
附錄八、各測站污染源 219
附錄九、口試委員意見答覆 222
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指導教授 李崇德(Chung-Te Lee) 審核日期 2023-7-25
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