博碩士論文 107327026 詳細資訊




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姓名 蔡金倫(Jin-Lun Cai)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 光機電工程研究所
論文名稱 單目視覺倒車入庫系統
(A Backward Parking System based on Monocular Vision)
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檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   至系統瀏覽論文 (2021-9-1以後開放)
摘要(中) 本研究使用單晶片電腦RaspberryPi 搭載單目鏡頭作為機器視覺系
統,經由UART 將控制所需之回授訊號傳輸至車體控制系統之微處理器
Arduino 控制自走車。機器視覺系統方面利用二值化、Canny 邊緣檢測、
閉運算、輪廓檢測等影像處理技術判斷鏡頭是否捕捉到停車格影像,並
利用相機校正取得單目相機之內參及外參,從而建立三維世界座標與二
維像素座標之間的對應關係,解算後取得相機與停車格之距離與偏航角
作為車體控制所需之參數。車體控制系統方面利用Arduino 接收之訊號
控制鏡頭轉動,並使用PID、PI 控制法輸出PWM 訊號控制馬達實現自
走車倒車入庫。
摘要(英) This research uses a singlechip
microcomputer RaspberryPi equipped
with a monocular len as a machine vision system, and transmits the
values required for control via UART to the microprocessor Arduino, serving
as a vehicle body control system, to control the selfguiding
vehicle.
The machine vision system uses image processing techniques such as
binarization, Canny edge detection, closed operation, and contour detection
to determine whether the camera captures a parking grid image,
and uses camera calibration to obtain the internal and external parameters
of the monocular camera, thereby establish the correspondence between
the threedimensional
world coordinates and the twodimensional
pixel coordinates, After calculation, the distance between the camera,
the parking space and the yaw angle are obtained as parameters required
for vehicle body control. In the body control system, the signal
received by the Arduino is used to control the lens rotation, and the PID
and PI control methods are used to output PWM signals to control the
motor to realize selfguiding
vehicle backward parking.
關鍵字(中) ★ 單目視覺
★ 相機校正
★ 自走車
★ 停車
★ 輪廓檢測
關鍵字(英) ★ Monocular vision
★ Camera calibration
★ Selfguiding vehicle
★ parking
★ Contour detection
論文目次 目錄viii
一、緒論1
1.1 背景介紹.................................................................. 1
1.2 研究目的與動機......................................................... 1
1.3 文獻回顧.................................................................. 2
1.4 論文架構.................................................................. 3
二、系統架構及硬體元件5
2.1 系統架構.................................................................. 5
2.2 硬體元件.................................................................. 6
2.2.1 影像處理系統................................................... 7
2.2.2 控制系統......................................................... 8
2.2.3 電源系統......................................................... 9
2.2.4 馬達系統......................................................... 10
2.3 硬體通訊介面............................................................ 13
2.3.1 UART 通信介面................................................ 13
三、影像處理背景知識14
3.1 影像處理演算法......................................................... 14
3.1.1 灰階與二值化................................................... 14
3.1.2 Canny 邊緣檢測................................................ 17
3.1.3 形態學............................................................ 18
3.1.4 停車格檢測...................................................... 22
3.2 相機校正.................................................................. 25
3.2.1 針孔成像......................................................... 25
3.2.2 座標系關係...................................................... 27
3.2.3 座標系轉換...................................................... 30
3.2.4 張式校正法...................................................... 35
3.2.5 相機畸變......................................................... 41
四、停車格資訊辨識實驗45
4.1 單目視覺處理系統...................................................... 45
4.2 相機位姿估計............................................................ 46
4.2.1 PnP 求解......................................................... 46
4.3 視覺回授資訊量測...................................................... 49
4.3.1 實驗環境......................................................... 49
4.3.2 角點座標排序................................................... 50
4.3.3 特徵點世界座標匹配.......................................... 51
4.3.4 視覺回授數據................................................... 53
五、控制流程與實驗結果57
5.1 倒車入庫控制系統...................................................... 57
5.1.1 自走車架構...................................................... 58
5.2 控制流程設計............................................................ 60
5.2.1 控制器設計...................................................... 60
5.2.2 中斷處理......................................................... 62
5.2.3 倒車入庫控制流程............................................. 63
5.3 實驗結果.................................................................. 67
六、結論與未來展望69
6.1 結論........................................................................ 69
6.2 未來展望.................................................................. 71
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指導教授 羅吉昌(Ji-Chang Lo) 審核日期 2020-8-5
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