博碩士論文 107457010 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:27 、訪客IP:18.215.185.97
姓名 何淑惠(Su-Hui Ho)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 人力資源管理研究所在職專班
論文名稱 中高齡員工認知未來職涯機會與工作動機關聯性之研究—契合理論調節式中介模型效果
(Research of Aging Employees’ Focus on Opportunity and Work Motivation–Discussion of Moderated Mediation Effect of Fit Theory)
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 隨著高齡社會來臨、少子化及中高齡勞參率降低問題也日益嚴重,如何將中高齡勞動人力留在職場並有效運用,將是未來人力資源管理的重要課題。如能協助組織充分運用中高齡員工的實務經驗、知識及智慧,並了解其工作動機及需求,使其願意繼續在組織中投入心力,當可強化其對組織的貢獻度,並能同步解決勞動力缺乏問題。
本研究係以社會情緒選擇理論為基礎,探討認知未來職涯機會、工作成長動機及持續工作動機之關係,以認知未來職涯機會自變項,持續工作動機為依變項,工作成長動機為中介變項,並以契合理論的相關變數之個人與組織適配、個人與工作適配及個人與主管適配為調節變項,藉以探究何種適配可提高中高齡員工的持續工作動機。
本研究針對45歲以上的中高齡員工,以問卷法進行研究,最終有效問卷為376份,有效問卷回收率為68%。研究結果顯示,工作成長動機在認知未來職涯機會與持續工作動機之間有顯著的中介效果。經過分析後,個人與組織適配及個人與工作適配皆能調節工作成長動機與持續工作動機之間的關係。在調節式中介模型的檢驗中,個人與組織適配以及主管適配皆未達顯著,另一方面則發現個人與工作適配能夠增強工作成長動機對認知未來職涯機會與持續工作動機的中介效果。最後,本研究提出管理意涵,期待中高齡議題能受到更多的重視。
摘要(英) With the advent of an aged society, the problem of declining birthrates and the reduction of the labor participation rate of the middle-aged and elderly is becoming more and more serious. To keep as well as effective utilize the middle-aged and senior-age working population in the workplace, will become an important issue for human resource management in the future. If the organization can fully utilize the practical experience, expertise, knowledge and wisdom of the middle-aged and senior employees, and understand their work motivations and fulfill their needs, such that they are willing to continue to dedicate their efforts in the organization, it can not only strengthen their contribution to the organization but also to solve labor shortage problem simultaneously.
This research is based on the theory of Socioemotional Selectivity, and explores the relationship between focus on opportunity, work growth motives and motivation to continue working. It uses cognition as the independent variables of focus on opportunity, motivation to continue working as the dependent variable, and work growth motives as mediator, and use the fit theory as moderator, respectively discussing whether “person-organization fit”, “person-job fit”, and “person-supervisor fit” have different outcomes on the mediation effect of work growth motives or not.
This study is focus on aging employees. The final effective questionnaire is 376, and the effective questionnaire recovery rate is 68%. The research result shows that work growth motives has a significant mediating effect between focus on opportunity and motivation to continue working. After analysis, “person-organization fit” and “person-job fit” can adjust the relationship between work growth motives and motivation to continue working. In the test of the moderating mediation model, “person-organization fit” and “person-supervisor fit” are not significant. On the other hand, it is found that the “person-job fit” can enhance the mediation effect of work growth motives and focus on opportunity and motivation to continue working. Finally, this study proposes forward the implications of management, hoping the aging employees issues will receive more attention.
關鍵字(中) ★ 認知未來職涯機會
★ 工作成長動機
★ 持續工作動機
★ 契合理論
關鍵字(英) ★ focus on opportunity
★ work growth motives
★ motivation to continue working
★ fit theory
論文目次 中文摘要 ⅰ
ABSTRACT ⅱ
誌謝 ⅲ
目錄 ⅳ
表目錄 ⅶ
圖目錄 ⅷ
一、緒論 1
1-1研究背景與動機 1
1-2研究目的 5
二、文獻探討與研究假設 6
2-1文獻探討 6
2-1-1社會情緒選擇理論 6
2-1-2認知未來職涯機會 7
2-1-3工作成長動機 7
2-1-4持續工作動機 8
2-1-5契合理論 10
2-2假設建立 12
2-2-1工作成長動機中介效果 12
2-2-2契合理論相關變數的調節效果 14
2-2-3契合理論的調節式中介效果 18
三、研究方法 21
3-1研究架構 21
3-2研究變項之操作性定義說明與測量方法 21
3-2-1 認知未來職涯機會 22
3-2-2 工作成長動機 22
3-2-3 契合理論 22
3-2-4 持續工作動機 23
3-2-5 控制變項 23
3-3研究程序 23
四、研究結果 25
4-1 資料來源與樣本特性 25
4-2 信度與效度分析 27
4-2-1 信度分析 27
4-2-2 驗證性因素分析 27
4-2-3 收斂效度與區辨效度 28
4-3 敘述統計與相關分析 31
4-4 假設檢定 33
4-4-1 工作成長動機中介效果檢驗 33
4-4-2 調節效果檢驗 34
4-4-3 調節式中介效果檢驗 39
五、結論與討論 43
5-1 研究結論與討論 43
5-2 研究貢獻 45
5-3 管理意涵 45
5-4 研究限制與未來研究建議 47
六、參考文獻 49
中文文獻 49
外國文獻 50
參考文獻 中文文獻
﹝1﹞ 周俐君,(2016),「高齡員工持續工作動機之研究—探討知覺高齡相關人資方案的調節式中介作用」,國立中央大學,碩士論文。
﹝2﹞ 馬一如, (2018),「中高齡員工未來時間觀與工作動機關聯性之研究— 跨層次探討適用中高齡人力資源管理措施調節效果」,國立中央大學,碩士論文。
﹝3﹞ 張淑倫,(1995),「基層農會推廣人員之工作投入」,農業推廣學報,第 12 期,15-43頁。
﹝4﹞ 莊璦嘉、沈其泰,(2017),「適配的適配: 關係適配與理性適配的互動」, Journal of Human Resource Management Vol, 17(3), 1-32.
﹝5﹞ 莊璦嘉、林惠彥, (2005) ,「個人與環境適配對工作態度與行為之影響」,台灣管理學刊,5(1),頁123-148。
﹝6﹞ 彭慧純,(2011),「人力資源專業人員之專業職能、工作動機與個人績效之關係探討」,國立中央大學,碩士論文。
﹝7﹞ 黃延慶,(2016) ,「知覺與年齡有關的人力資源管理,工作成長動機與中高齡員工持續工作動機關聯性之研究—調節式中介效果之檢驗」,國立中央大學,碩士論文。
﹝8﹞ 鄭伯壎,(1995),「組織價值的上下契合度與組織成員個人的效能」,中華心理學刊,37: 235-244.
﹝9﹞ 謝依純,(2012),「 影響台灣中高齡者退休年齡之因素」, 臺灣老年學論壇,14.
﹝10﹞ 國家發展委員會: 中華民國人口推估(2018至2065年),2018 年8 月,取自:https://www.ndc.gov.tw/Content_List.aspx?n=695E69E28C6AC7F3。
﹝11﹞ 行政院主計總處「人力資源調查」、各國官方網站。取自https://www.mol.gov.tw/statistics/2462/2466/ 
外國文獻
﹝1﹞ Aday, R. H., & Kehoe, G. (2008). Working in old age: benefits of participation in the senior community service employment program. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 23(1-2), 125-145.
﹝2﹞ Armstrong‐Stassen, M. (2008). Human resource practices for mature workers-And why aren′t employers using them?. Asia Pacific journal of human resources, 46(3), 334-352
﹝3﹞ Armstrong‐Stassen, M. (2008). Organisational practices and the post‐retirement employment experience of older workers. Human Resource Management Journal, 18(1), 36-53.
﹝4﹞ Armstrong‐Stassen, M., & Schlosser, F. (2011). Perceived organizational membership and the retention of older workers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(2), 319-344.
﹝5﹞ Bal, P. M. (2015). Sustainable careers: enabling older workers to continue working through individualized work arrangements. In Handbook of research on sustainable careers. Edward Elgar Publishing.
﹝6﹞ Bal, P. M., de Lange, A. H., Zacher, H., and Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M. (2013). A lifespan perspective on psychological contracts and their relations with organizational commitment. Eur. J. Work Organ. Psychol. 22, 279–292.
﹝7﹞ Bal, P. M., Jansen, P. G. W., van der Velde, E. G., de Lange, A. H., & Rousseau, D. M. (2010). The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts. A study among older workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 474-486.
﹝8﹞ Bernardin, H. J. (1979). The predictability of discrepancy measures of role constructs. Personnel Psychology, 32: 139-153.
﹝9﹞ Blau, G. J. (1981). An empirical investigation of job stress, social support, service length, and job strain. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 27: 279-302.
﹝10﹞ Bowen, D. E., Ledford Jr, G. E., & Nathan, B. R. (1991). Hiring for the organization, not the job. Academy of Management Perspectives, 5(4), 35-51.
﹝11﹞ Byrne, D. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York: Academic Press.
﹝12﹞ Cable, D. M., & DeRue, D. S.(2002). The convergent and discriminant validity of subjective fit perceptions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: 875-884.
﹝13﹞ Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1996). Person–organization fit, job choice decisions, and organizational entry. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 67(3), 294-311.
﹝14﹞ Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory ofsocioemotional selectivity. American psychologist, 54(3), 165.
﹝15﹞ Carstensen, L. L. (2006). The influence of a sense of time on human development. Science, 6, 1913–1915.
﹝16﹞ Carstensen, L. L., & Lang, F. R. (1996). Future time perspective scale. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.
﹝17﹞ Carstensen, L. L., Isaacowitz, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American psychologist, 54(3), 165.
﹝18﹞ Carstensen, L.L. (1995). Evidence for a life-span theory of socioemotional selectivity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 4 No. 5, pp. 151-6
﹝19﹞ Cate, R. A., & John, O. P. (2007). Testing models of the structure and development of future time perspective: maintaining a focus on opportunities in middle age. Psychology and aging, 22(1), 186.
﹝20﹞ Cavanaugh, M. A., & Noe, R. A. (1999). Antecedents and consequences of relational components of the new psychological contract. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(3), 323-340.
﹝21﹞ Chuang, A. (2001). The perceived importance of person-job fit and person-organization fit between and within interview stages. Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
﹝22﹞ Coyle-Shapiro, J. & Kessler, I. (2000). Consequences of psychological contract for the employment relationship: oooo large scale survey. The Journal of Management Studies, 37(7), 903-930.
﹝23﹞ Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of research in personality, 19(2), 109-134.
﹝24﹞ Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The" what" and" why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.
﹝25﹞ Deluga, R. J. (1994). Supervisor trust building, leader‐member exchange and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67:315-326.
﹝26﹞ Doering, M., Rhodes, S. R., & Schuster, M. R. (1983). The aging worker: Research and recommendations. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.
﹝27﹞ Dorien, K., Maria, T., & Ruth, K. (2015). Successful aging at work: The role of job crafting Aging workers and the employee-employer relationship (pp. 145-161): Springer.
﹝28﹞ Dweck, C. S. (1991). Self-theories and goals: their role in personality, motivation and development. In Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 40).
﹝29﹞ Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
﹝30﹞ Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Psychology press.
﹝31﹞ Edwards, J. R. (1991). Person-job fit: A conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique. In C. L. Cooper and I. T. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology: 283-357. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
﹝32﹞ Ferris, G. R. (1985). Role of leadership in the employee withdrawal process: A constructive replication. Journal of applied psychology, 70(4), 777.
﹝33﹞ French, J. R. P., Jr., Caplan, R. D., & Harrison, R. V. (1982). The mechanism of job stress and strain. New York: Wiley.
﹝34﹞ Graen, G.B., & Ginsburgh, S. (1977). Job resignation as a function of role orientation and leader acceptance: A longitudinal investigation of organizational assimilation. Organizational behavior and human performance, 19(1), 1-17.
﹝35﹞ Graen, G. B., & M. Uhl-Bien,(1991). The transformation of professionals into self-managing and partially self-designing contributions: Toward a theory of leader-making. Journal of Management Sisters, 3: 33-48.
﹝36﹞ Grandey, A. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1999). The conservation of resources model applied to work–family conflict and strain. Journal of vocational behavior, 54(2), 350-370.
﹝37﹞ Hall, D. T., & Moss, J. E. (1998). The new protean career contract: Helping organizations and employees adapt. Organizational dynamics, 26(3), 22-37.
﹝38﹞ Heckhausen, J., Wrosch, C., & Schulz, R. (2010). A motivational theory of life-span development. Psychological review, 117(1), 32
﹝39﹞ Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1993). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
﹝40﹞ Higgs, P., Mein, G., Ferrie, J., Hyde, M. & Nazroo, J. (2003). Pathways to early retirement:structure and agency in decision-making among British civil servants, Ageing & Society, 23, 761-78,
﹝41﹞ Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513-524.
﹝42﹞ Hoffman, B. J., & Woehr, D. J. (2006). A quantitative review of the relationship between person-organization fit and behavioral outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68(3), 389-399.
﹝43﹞ Hursh, Lui, & Pransky. (2006). Maintaining and enhancing older worker productivity. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 25(1), 45-55.
﹝44﹞ Jackson, S. E., Brett, J. F., Sessa, V. I., Cooper, D. M., Julin, J. A., & K. Peyronnin, (1991). Some differences make a difference: Individual dissimilarity and group heterogeneity as correlates of recruitment, promotions and turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76: 675-689
﹝45﹞ Joke Simons, M. V., Willy Lens,& Marlies Lacante, (2004)."Placing Motivation and Future Time Perspective Theory in a Temporal Perspective." Educational Psychology Review, 16(2), pp.
﹝46﹞ Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P. L. (2004). Aging, adult development, and workmotivation. Academy of management review, 29(3), 440-458.
﹝47﹞ Kanfer, R., Beier, M. E., & Ackerman, P. L. (2013). Goals and motivation related to work in later adulthood: An organizing framework. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(3), 253-264.
﹝48﹞ Kolenko, T. A., & Aldag, R. J. (1989). Congruence perceptions and managerial career/work outcomes: An exploratory analysis. In meeting of the National Academy of Management.
﹝49﹞ Kooij, & Voorde, K. (2011). How changes in subjective general health predict future time perspective, and development and generativity motives over the lifespan. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(2), 228-247.
﹝50﹞ Kooij, D. T., Bal, P. M., & Kanfer, R. (2014). Future time perspective and promotion focus as determinants of intraindividual change in work motivation. Psychology and Aging, 29(2), 319-328.
﹝51﹞ Kooij, D. T., Guest, D. E., Clinton, M., Knight, T., Jansen, P. G., & Dikkers, J. S. (2013). How the impact of HR practices on employee well‐being and performance changes with age. Human Resource Management Journal, 23(1), 18-35.
﹝52﹞ Kooij, D. T., Jansen, P. G., Dikkers, J. S., & De Lange, A. H. (2010). The influence of age on the associations between HR practices and both affective commitment and job satisfaction: A meta‐analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(8), 1111-1136.
﹝53﹞ Kooij, D. T., Jansen, P. G., Dikkers, J. S., & de Lange, A. H. (2014). Managing aging workers: A mixed methods study on bundles of HR practices for aging workers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(15), 2192-2212.
﹝54﹞ Kooij, D. T., De Lange, A. H., Jansen, P. G., Kanfer, R., & Dikkers, J. S. (2011). Age and work‐related motives: Results of a meta‐analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(2), 197-225.
﹝55﹞ Kooij, T. A. M. (2010). Motivating older workers: a lifespan perspective on the role of perceived HR practices.
﹝56﹞ Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person‐organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel psychology, 49(1), 1-49.
﹝57﹞ Kristof-Brown, A. L., Zimmerman, R. D., & Johnson, E. C. (2005). Consequences of individuals′ fit at work: A meta-analysis of person-job, person-organization, person-group, and person-supervisor fit. Personnel Psychology, 58(2), 281-342.
﹝58﹞ Lang, F. R., & Carstensen, L. L. (2002). Time counts: Future time perspective, goals and social relationships. Psychology and Aging, 17, 125–139. doi:10.1037/08827974.17.1.125
﹝59﹞ Leiter, M. P. (1988). Burnout as a function of communication patterns. Group and Organization Studies, 13: 111-128.
﹝60﹞ Lewin, K. (1935). A dynamic theory of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
﹝61﹞ Mather, M., & Carstensen, L.L. (2005). Aging and motivated cognition: the positivity effect in attention and memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 496–502.
﹝62﹞ Meglino, B. M., Ravlin, E. C., & C. L. Adkins, (1989). A work values approach to corporate culture: A field test of the value congruence process and its relationship to individual outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74: 424-432.
﹝63﹞ Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., Lee, T. W., Sablynski, C. J., & Erez, M. (2001). Why people stay: Using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Academy of 42-Management Journal, 44(6), 1102-1121.
﹝64﹞ Muchinsky, P. M., & Monahan, C. J. (1987). What is person–environment congruence? Supplementary versus complementary model fit. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31, 268-277.
﹝65﹞ O′Reilly III, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Academy of management journal, 34(3), 487-516.
﹝66﹞ Oh, I. S., Guay, R. P., Kim, K., Harold, C. M., Lee, J. H., Heo, C. G., & Shin, K. H. (2014). Fit happens globally: A meta‐analytic comparison of the relationships of person–environment fit dimensions with work attitudes and performance across East Asia, Europe, and North America. Personnel Psychology, 67(1), 99-152.
﹝67﹞ Pinder, C. C. (1984). Work motivation: Theory, issues, and applications: Scott Foresman & Co.
﹝68﹞ Robbins, S. P. (1991). Organizational behavior: Concepts, controversies, and applications. Prentice Hall
﹝69﹞ Saks, A. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (1997). Organizational socialization: Making sense of the past and present as a prologue for the future. Journal of vocational Behavior, 51(2), 234-279.
﹝70﹞ Schneider, B. (2001). Fits about fit. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50, 141-152.
﹝71﹞ Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40: 437-453.
﹝72﹞ Sekiguchi, T. (2003). A contingency perspective on the importance of P-J fit and P-O fit in employee selection. paper presented at the Annual Conference of Academy of Management, Seattle, WA
﹝73﹞ Shacklock, K., Brunetto, Y., & Nelson, S. (2009). The different variables that affect older males′ and females′ intentions to continue working. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 47(1), 79-101.
﹝74﹞ Shore, L. M., & Tetrick, L. E. (1991). A construct validity study of the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of applied psychology, 76(5), 637.
﹝75﹞ Sterns, & Doverspike. (1989). Aging and the Retraining and the Learning Processes in Organizations. Training and Development in Work Organizations. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.
﹝76﹞ Tajfel, H. (1982). Social identity and inter group behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
﹝77﹞ Taris, R., & Feij, J. (2001). Longitudinal examination of the relationship between supplies-values fit and work outcomes. Applied Psychology, 50(1), 52-80.
﹝78﹞ Treadway, D. C., Duke, A. B., Perrewe, P. L., Breland, J. W., & Goodman, J. M. (2011). Time may change me: The impact of future time perspective on the relationship between work–family demands and employee commitment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(7), 1659-1679,
﹝79﹞ Tsui, A. S.,& O’Reilly, C. A.(1989). Beyond simple demographic affects: The importance of relational demography in superior-subordinate dyads. Academy of Management Journal, 32: 402-423.
﹝80﹞ Valentine, S., Godkin, L., & Lucero, M. (2002). Ethical context, organizational commitment, and person-organization fit. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(4), 349-360.
﹝81﹞ Van Vianen, A. E., Shen, C. T., & Chuang, A. (2011). Person–organization and person–supervisor fits: Employee commitments in a Chinese context. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(6), 906-926.
﹝82﹞ Vancouver, J. B., & N. W. Schmitt, (1991). An exploratory examination of person-organization fit: Organizational goal congruence. Personnel Psychology, 44: 333-352.
﹝83﹞ Vecchio, R. P., Griffeth, R. W., & Hom, P. W. (1986). The predictive utility of the vertical dyad linkage approach. The Journal of social psychology, 126(5), 617-625.
﹝84﹞ Weiss, H. M. (1978). Social learning of work values in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63: 711-718.
﹝85﹞ Wexley, K. N., Alexander, R. A., Greenawalt, J. P., & Couch, M. A. (1980). Attitudinal congruence and similarity as related to interpersonal evaluation in manager–subordinate dyads. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 320-330.
﹝86﹞ Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1998). Emotional exhaustion as a predictor of job performance and voluntary turnover. Journal of applied psychology, 83(3), 486.
﹝87﹞ Zacher, H., & Frese, M. (2009). Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective. Psychology and Aging, 24, 487–493. doi:10.1037/a0015425
﹝88﹞ Zacher, H., & Frese, M. (2011). Maintaining a focus on opportunities at work: The interplay between age, job complexity, and the use of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(2), 291-318.
﹝89﹞ Zacher, H., & Yang, J. (2016). Organizational climate for successful aging. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1007.
﹝90﹞ Zacher, H., Hacker, W., & Frese, M. (2016). Action regulation across the adult lifespan (ARAL): A metatheory of work and aging. Work, Aging and Retirement, 2(3), 286-306.
﹝91﹞ Zacher, H., Heusner, S., Schmitz, M., Zwierzanska, M. M., & Frese, M., (2010). Focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age, job complexity, and work performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3), pp 374-386.
﹝92﹞ Zenger, T. R., & Lawrence, B. S. (1989). Organizational demography: The differential effects of age and tenure distributions on technical communication. Academy of Management journal, 32(2), 353-376..
指導教授 楊君琦 林文政(Chun-Chi Yang Wen-Jeng Lin) 審核日期 2020-7-28
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明