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姓名 田昕平(Hsin-Ping Tien)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱 以簡單施力作業及重複效應檢驗動作意象與執行之對應關係
(The Examination of the Functional Correspondence between Motor Imagery and Execution with Simple Force Production Task and Repetition Paradigm)
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摘要(中) 功能性等價假設認為動作意象與實際動作有相同的運作表徵;然而過去研究中所使用的動作意象作業相當多元,對於功能性等價假設的驗証結果並不一致。本研究檢驗功能性等價的調節因子,並且設計較客觀的研究方法量化動作意象。實驗一使用最小化肢體在空間移動的簡單施力作業,以比較作業負荷與動作時長間的線性關係在意象與動作間的差別;結果發現前述線性關係的斜率在動作意象較緩。因為動作時長的測量依賴自我報告,易受到作業要求與執行時個體心理狀態影響;實驗二與三採用快速選擇反應時間作業測量重複效果以更客觀地檢驗動作意象。此作業將初始與探測刺激前後組合,參與者針對初始刺激進行凝視、想像或實際反應,對探測刺激則實際執行相對應動作;當組內刺激重複比非重複情況反應時間快即為重複效果。實驗二發現實際動作的重複效果比動作意象強,凝視則沒有重複效果。實驗三延長初始刺激時間並量測肌電反應作為控制變項;雖再現實驗二之結果,卻未發現實際動作與動作意象的重複效果間有相關聯。本研究藉更客觀的量測,推論動作意象和實際動作並非功能性等價。未來研究可以利用重複效果典範辨識其對應神經機制,以進一步釐清參與控制動作意象和實際動作執行機制間之異同。
摘要(英) The relationship between Motor Imagery (MI) and Motor Execution (ME) has been debated for a long time. The functional equivalence hypothesis asserts identical operating principles underlying motor imagery and motor execution. However, diverse motor tasks have been adopted in the extant literature and inconsistent findings reported. The current study aims to examine the modulating factors of functional equivalence as well as to design objective methods that can better quantify motor imagery. In Experiment 1, isometric force production with minimal spatial kinesthetic movements were adopted to explore how spatial (where) or non-spatial (what) visual information modulate the linear function between task loading and imagery/execution duration. While the functional equivalence predicts identical linear functions for MI and ME, the results indicated deeper slope for the ME than the MI condition for both “where” and “what” feedback groups. The estimation of imagery/execution duration in the Experiment 1 heavily relied on self-report, which may be contaminated by the execution state and task demand. In Experiment 2 and 3, an objective experimental paradigm for assessing MI, the repetition effect, which shows the repeated response is faster than non-repeated ones in ME, was adopted to examine functional equivalence. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to imagine or execute manual speeded-choices indicated by consecutively presented pairs of visual prime and probe, and reaction times (RT) to probes were compared between trial pairs that required repeated or non-repeated responses to the prime and probe, respectively. Significant repetition effect in both Execution and Imagery conditions (though weaker in the latter) were found, but not in the Perception condition where participants simply observed the prime without executing or imagining responses. In Experiment 3, the mental simulation duration of the Imagery was prolonged to allow sufficient time for completing mental simulation and the electromyography (EMG) activation was controlled. There was still stronger repetition effect in the Execution than the Imagery condition, but repetition effect in Imagery and Execution were not correlated. Taken together, through a novel paradigm which measures motor imagery in a more explicit and objective fashion than conventional methods, we argued that motor imagery is not functionally equivalent to execution. On the basis of the new paradigm, future studies with brain dynamic measures may help to further specify the exact neural mechanisms shared by or distinguishing motor imagery and execution.
關鍵字(中) ★ 動作意象
★ 動作模擬模型
★ 視覺動作連結
關鍵字(英) ★ Motor imagery
★ Motor simulation theory
★ Visuomotor Association
論文目次 中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
Introduction 1
Research Questions and Predictions 4
Experiment 1: Examine Functional Equivalence in Force Production Task 7
Methods 8
Participants 8
Design 9
Task, Stimuli, and Apparatus 10
Procedure 11
Data Analysis 15
Results 17
Discussion 22
Experiment 2: Examining Repetition Effect in Motor Imagery 27
Methods 29
Participants 29
Design 29
Task, Stimuli, and Apparatus 30
Procedure 31
Data Analysis 33
Results 34
RT results 34
Accuracies 35
Correlations among subjective vividness of MI and RT measures 36
Discussion 38
Repetition effect in MI 39
Weaker Repetition Effect in MI than ME 41
Experiment 3: Prolonged Motor Programming Period and Better Control with EMG Recording 43
Methods 43
Participants 43
Design 43
Task, Stimuli, and Apparatus 44
Procedure 44
Data Analysis 44
Results 47
Overall 47
EMG response exclusion group 50
EMG response only group 53
Discussion 54
Muscle activation modulates the repetition effect 55
General Discussion 59
Evidence inconsistent with the functional equivalence hypothesis 59
Comparison between subjective duration paradigm and repetition effect paradigm 60
Limitations 61
Subjective duration measurement 61
Repetition effect paradigm 63
Future Directions 64
Corresponding neurophysiological mechanism 64
Inhibition process of MI 65
References 69
Appendix I: Edinburgh Handedness Inventory 75
Appendix II: Chinese version of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revision 76
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指導教授 張智宏(Erik Chihung Chang) 審核日期 2021-5-24
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