||This studyis mainly to simulate and analyze the optical waveguide system, and the optical waveguide system has coupling-in and out-coupling structures, and the light can be coupled in and out of the optical waveguide through these two diffraction structures. We use RCWA and FDTD to simulate and analyze the scattering behavior of the diffraction structure and integrate them into a BSDF. In the optical waveguide system, this BSDF can be used to describe the propagation behavior of light after it hits the area surface established by BSDF, the light propagates later; and the structural parameters will be adjusted for the duty ratio and aspect ratio of the diffractive structure to find the best structural parameters. In order to increase the range of images that can be received by the pupil of the human eye, we have used 1D image exit pupil expansion and 2D image exit pupil expansion technology. In the part of 1D image exit pupil expansion technology, the in-coupling structure and out-coupling structure of the specific wavelengths of green light, red light and blue light have been successfully designed respectively. The results of simulation analysis are: the light output rate is 19.25%, 19.27% and 19.28% respectively, and the uniformity can reach 99.49%, 99.44% and 98.63%; The part of the 2D image exit pupil beam expansion technology is based on the 1D image exit pupil beam expansion technology. Before the light enters the optical waveguide system, the light is split by the combination of the beam splitter and the prism, so that the beam is divided into three beams. And it is guided and coupled out in the optical waveguide system by each coupling-in structure and out-coupling structure, the light output rate is 16.32%, 16.34% and 16.34% respectively, and the uniformity is 99.38%, 99.33% and 98.52% respectively.|
||Global Augmented Reality Market By Component. 2021. Retrieved from|
Understanding Waveguide: the Key Technology for Augmented Reality Near-eye Display (Part I). 2019. Retrieved from
Understanding Waveguide: the Key Technology for Augmented Reality Near-eye Display (Part II). 2019. Retrieved from
Zhan, Tao, et al. "Augmented reality and virtual reality displays: perspectives and challenges." Iscience 23.8 (2020): 101397.
Mukawa, Hiroshi, et al. "A full‐color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms." Journal of the society for information display 17.3 (2009): 185-193.
Photonics in Sony’s novel display technologies. 2019. Retrieved from
Levola, Tapani, and Pasi Laakkonen. "Replicated slanted gratings with a high refractive index material for in and outcoupling of light." Optics Express 15.5 (2007): 2067-2074.
Yoshida, Takuji, et al. "A plastic holographic waveguide combiner for light‐weight and highly‐transparent augmented reality glasses." Journal of the Society for Information Display 26.5 (2018): 280-286.
Weng, Yishi, et al. "Liquid-crystal-based polarization volume grating applied for full-color waveguide displays." Optics Letters 43.23 (2018): 5773-5776.
Laakkonen, Pasi, et al. "High efficiency diffractive incouplers for light guides." Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XII. Vol. 6896. SPIE, 2008.
Yu, Chao, et al. "Highly efficient waveguide display with space-variant volume holographic gratings." Applied optics 56.34 (2017): 9390-9397.
Jang, Changwon, et al. "Design and fabrication of freeform holographic optical elements." ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 39.6 (2020): 1-15.
Xiong, Jianghao, and Shin-Tson Wu. "Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of liquid crystal polarization gratings." Optics Express 28.24 (2020): 35960-35971.
Urey, Hakan. "Diffractive exit-pupil expander for display applications." Applied Optics 40.32 (2001): 5840-5851.
Urey, Hakan, and Karlton D. Powell. "Microlens-array-based exit-pupil expander for full-color displays." Applied optics 44.23 (2005): 4930-4936.
Levola, Tapani. "Diffractive optics for virtual reality displays." Journal of the Society for Information Display 14.5 (2006): 467-475.
Kress, Bernard, Victorien Raulot, and Michel Grossman. "Exit pupil expander for wearable see-through displays." Photonic Applications for Aerospace, Transportation, and Harsh Environment III. Vol. 8368. SPIE, 2012.
Grey, David J. "The ideal imaging AR waveguide." Digital Optical Technologies 2017. Vol. 10335. SPIE, 2017.
Waldern, Jonathan David, Alastair John Grant, and Milan Momcilo Popovich. "17‐4: DigiLens AR HUD Waveguide Technology." SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers. Vol. 49. No. 1. 2018.
McLamb, Micheal, et al. "Diffraction gratings for uniform light extraction from light guides." 2019 IEEE 16th International Conference on Smart Cities: Improving Quality of Life Using ICT & IoT and AI (HONET-ICT). IEEE, 2019.
Yee, Kane. "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell′s equations in isotropic media." IEEE Transactions on antennas and propagation 14.3 (1966): 302-307.
Maxwell, James Clerk. "VIII. A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field." Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London 155 (1865): 459-512.
Berenger, J-P. "Perfectly matched layer for the FDTD solution of wave-structure interaction problems." IEEE Transactions on antennas and propagation 44.1 (1996): 110-117.
Moharam, M. G., et al. "Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings." JOSA a 12.5 (1995): 1068-1076.
Metropolis, Nicholas, and Stanislas Ulam. "The Monte Carlo Method Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol. 44, no 247." (1949): 335-341.
Wittwer, David C., and Richard W. Ziolkowski. "How to design the imperfect Berenger PML." Electromagnetics 16.4 (1996): 465-485.
Findlay, R. P., and P. J. Dimbylow. "Variations in calculated SAR with distance to the perfectly matched layer boundary for a human voxel model." Physics in Medicine & Biology 51.23 (2006): N411.
Laakso, Ilkka, Sami Ilvonen, and Tero Uusitupa. "Performance of convolutional PML absorbing boundary conditions in finite-difference time-domain SAR calculations." Physics in Medicine & Biology 52.23 (2007): 7183.
Su, Wei, et al. "Polarization-independent beam focusing by high-contrast grating reflectors." Optics Communications 325 (2014): 5-8.
Callens, Michiel Koen, et al. "RCWA and FDTD modeling of light emission from internally structured OLEDs." Optics express 22.103 (2014): A589-A600.