博碩士論文 109022602 詳細資訊




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姓名 席曼朱(Febryanto Simanjuntak)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 遙測科技碩士學位學程
論文名稱 衛星觀測季風對海表溫度、葉綠素 a 和 Ekman 動力學變異的影響及其與 IOD 和 ENSO之相關分析-小巽他群島南部海岸
(The effects of Monsoon on Sea Surface Temperature, Chlorophyll-a, and Ekman dynamics variability and its connection to IOD and ENSO based on satellite observations off the southern coast of Lesser Sunda Islands)
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摘要(中) 印度尼西亞海域的海表面參數受到亞洲-澳大利亞季風 (Asian-Australian Monsoon, AAM) 風、印度洋偶極子 (Indian Ocean Dipole, IOD) 和厄爾尼諾-南方濤動 (El Nino-Southern Oscillation, ENSO) 的強烈影響,特別是在小巽他群島 (Lesser Sunda Islands, LSI) 南部海岸。本研究因此應用衛星觀測資料檢驗AAM 風對海洋表面參數變化的效應,以及AAM對 IOD 和 ENSO 的影響。此外,本文還定義埃克曼動力學的空間和時間變化,包括埃克曼質量傳遞 (Ekman Mass Transport, EMT) 和埃克曼泵送速度 (Ekman Pumping Velocity, EPV),以及海面溫度 (sea surface temperature, SST) 與風之間的關聯。基於衛星觀測資料、現地量測數據和再分析數解析LSI中湧升流的有利特徵。分析結果顯示,2009年厄爾尼諾(El Nino)期間葉綠素-a(-0.5 mg m-3)和SST(+1.5°C)有明顯的異相變化情形,這與負風應力和EMT異常相吻合;相反地,在 2007 年拉尼娜(La Nina)期間則有SST (-0.5 °C) 和葉綠素-a (+0.5 mg m−3) 的異相變化。根據 浮標(Argo float) 的觀測數據,東南季風季節的混合層深度較西北季風季節期間淺。同時再分析數據也顯示爪哇島南部海岸的上升流強度明顯高於其他週邊區域。此外,本研究亦發現 LSI 南部海岸的四個不同區域具有獨特的生成機制,可調節這四個領域內的 SST 差異。
摘要(英) Indonesian seas are significantly affected by the Asian-Australian Monsoon (AAM) winds, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), particularly along the southern coast of Lesser Sunda Islands (LSI). This study investigates the impact of the AAM winds on ocean surface conditions and elucidates the influence of IOD and ENSO within the LSI. In addition, the spatial and temporal variability of Ekman dynamics, which includes of Ekman Mass Transport (EMT) and Ekman Pumping Velocity (EPV), will also be defined, as well as the association between sea surface temperature (SST) and wind in the LSI. Remotely sensed data, in-situ observation data, and reanalysis data are used to understand the favorable features for upwelling in the LSI. The results indicate that negative chlorophyll-a (-0.5 mg m-3) and positive SST (1.5°C) anomalies occurred during the 2009 El Nino, which coincides with negative wind stress and EMT anomalies. Conversely, negative SST (-0.5 °C) and positive chlorophyll-a (0.5 mg m−3) anomalies occurred during the 2007 La Nina. Based on the Argo float data, the mixed layer depth during the southeast monsoon season is shallower than during the northwest monsoon season. Furthermore, according to the reanalysis data, the author found that the upwelling strength in the southern coast of Java (Box 1) is stronger than in Boxes 2, 3, and 4. Additionally, the author found that four different regions in the southern coast of LSI have a distinctive generated mechanism that regulates SST variance within these four areas.
關鍵字(中) ★ ENSO
★ IOD
★ 上升流
★ 埃克曼動力學
關鍵字(英) ★ ENSO
★ IOD
★ upwelling
★ Ekman dynamics
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgement iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Figures vi
List of Tables vii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. Background 1
1.2. Research Problem and Objective 2
1.3. Thesis Outline 4
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 Upwelling 5
2.2. Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) 6
2.2.1 Definition and the importance of chl-a 6
2.2.2 The Aqua MODIS chl-a product 7
2.3 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) 7
2.3.1 Remote sensing of SST 7
2.3.2 The Aqua MODIS SST product 9
2.4 Wind 10
2.4.1 The influence of the wind on the ocean 10
2.4.2 Copernicus Marine Service wind product 12
2.5 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 13
2.6 Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) 15
CHAPTER III Study Area and Methods 16
3.1. Study Area 16
3.2. Dataset 17
3.3. Methods 18
3.3.1 Workflow 18
3.3.2 Wind stress, EMT, and EPV calculation 19
3.3.3 ONI and DMI 20
3.3.4 Reanalysis data processing 21
3.3.5 Relationship between SST, Ekman dynamics, and IOD and ENSO 22
CHAPTER IV Results and Discussion 24
4.1. Result 24
4.1.1 Spatio-temporal variation of chl-a 24
4.1.2 Spatio-temporal variation of SST 25
4.1.3 Spatio-temporal variation of wind stress 26
4.1.4 The four distinct area with different relationship between SST and wind 27
4.1.5 Spatio-temporal variation of EMT 28
4.1.6 Spatio-temporal variation of EPV 29
4.1.7 The effect of the 2009 El Nino and 2007 La Nina 34
4.1.8 The effect of the 2008 positive IOD and 2016 negative IOD 36
4.1.9 The effect of the 2015 positive IOD coincides with El Nino and 2010 negative IOD coincides with La Nina 38
4.1.10 The variation of mixed layer depth 40
4.2. Discussion 42
CHAPTER V Conclusions 44
References 46
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指導教授 林唐煌(Lin, Tang-Huang) 審核日期 2022-6-22
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