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姓名 賴揚達(Yang-Ta Lai)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 哲學研究所
論文名稱 基因編輯技術的倫理反思
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摘要(中) 基因編輯技術的倫理反思

中文摘要

人類在不斷地追求卓越的過程中,不只發展出了許多其他動物所沒有的能力,也持續改進周遭的環境和工具,使我們不必再逐水草而居,且能與其他人一同合作、生活,並得以發展出更細緻的思想與技術。現在,我們終於來到將人類自己作為改良對象的這一步。然而「改良人類」的過程卻不是那麼的順利。優生學便是人類第一次為大規模改良自己的遺傳型態所做的嘗試;但諸如強制性的結紮、殘忍的隔離政策,及對特定種族的大規模屠殺等…人倫悲劇,相信多數人應該都會同意,優生學是黑暗且殘忍的。在這樣的情況下,當人類又要再次為改良自己的遺傳型態做出嘗試,即:將「基因編輯」的技術應用到人類身上時,想當然爾會造成許多人的恐懼及質疑。這樣的恐懼,甚至也影響到人們對於「將基因編輯技術應用於動植物身上」的態度。

倘若基因編輯技的應用能拯救許多人的生命,讓人們免受飢餓與疾病的困擾,並能享受更高的生活品質,那麼究竟有什麼理由不去發展這項極具潛力的技術呢?將基因編輯的技術,應用到強化動植物,甚至是人類的身上,真的是如此危險且有道德疑慮的嗎?為了回應上述問題,本論文將首先回顧優生學的歷史與可能涉及的道德問題,整理基因編輯這項技術的原理及風險,並檢視幾位知名哲學家所提出的,關於基因編輯及強化的論證, 期望能在思索過程的最後,向人們揭示如何在不忽略倫理問題的情況下,以適切的態度面對基因編輯,乃至強化人類之議題。

關鍵字:應用倫理學、基因編輯、基因、優生學、CRISPR、強化
摘要(英) Ethical Reflection on Gene Editing Technology

Abstract:

As humanity continually pursues excellence, we have not only developed capabilities that other animals lack but also improved our environment and tools, enabling us to transcend a nomadic existence, cooperate and live together with others, and advance our thoughts and technologies. Now, we have arrived at a point where we can modify ourselves as the object of improvement. However, the process of "enhancing humans" is not without its challenges. Eugenics was humanity′s first attempt at large-scale genetic improvement, but it resulted in ethical tragedies such as forced sterilization, cruel segregation policies, and mass killings of specific ethnic groups. Most people would agree that eugenics was a dark and cruel chapter in history. Given this context, when humans once again attempt to improve their genetic makeup through "gene editing" technology, it is natural for many to feel fear and doubt. Such fears have even affected people′s attitudes towards "applying gene editing technology to animals and plants."

If the application of gene editing technology can save many lives, free people from hunger and disease, and improve their quality of life, what reason is there not to develop this highly promising technology? Is applying gene editing technology to enhance animals, plants, and even humans truly as dangerous and morally questionable as some fear? To address these questions, this paper will first review the history of eugenics and the ethical issues it raised. It will then explore the principles and risks of gene editing technology and examine arguments put forth by several prominent philosophers regarding gene editing and enhancement. The ultimate aim is to reveal, after careful consideration, how to approach gene editing, including the enhancement of humans, with the appropriate attitude while acknowledging ethical concerns.

Keywords: Applied Ethics, Gene Editing, Genes, Eugenics, CRISPR, Enhancement.
關鍵字(中) ★ 應用倫理學
★ 基因
★ 基因編輯
★ 優生學
★ 強化
★ CRISPR
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 目錄

第一章:導論......................................................................................................1

第二章:優生學簡介..........................................................................................5
第一節 優生學的核心思想.....................................................................................................6
第二節 反對優生學的各種觀點............................................................................................14

第三章:基因編輯及其倫理問題.....................................................................27
第一節 何謂基因編輯............................................................................................................27
第二節 基因編輯技術之應用-以植物和動物為例...............................................................37
第三節 基因編輯動、植物可能遭遇的倫理困境................................................................41

第四章:基因強化人類之相關論論證及回應.................................................49
第一節 基因編輯技術之應用-以人類為例...........................................................................49
第二節 對基因強化人類之倫理論述的檢視與省思............................................................52

第五章 結論......................................................................................................68
參考文獻 參考書目

專書

Buchanan, Allen, & Brock, W. Dan, & Daniels, Norman, & Wikler, Daniel. (2000). From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Carey, Nessa. (2019). Hacking The Code of Life: How Gene Editing Will Rewrite Our Future. USA: Icon Books Ltd.

Doudna, A. Jennifer, & Sternberg, H. Samuel. (2018). A Crack in Creation: Gene Editing and the Unthinkable Power to Control Evolution. New York: Mariner Books.

Habermas, Jurgen. (2003). The Future of Human Nature, Oxford: Polity Press.

Sandel, J. Michael. (2009). The Case Against Perfection: Ethics in The Age of Genetic Engineering. The United States of America: First Harvard University Press.

李瑞全,蔡篤堅主編:《基因治療與倫理、法律、社會意涵論文選集》(台北:唐山出版社,2003),頁50~52。

阿道夫·希特勒著,陳式編譯:《我的奮鬥》(新竹:文國書局,2004)

Buchanan Allen,Brock W. Dan,Daniels Norman,Wikler Daniel著,蕭郁雯譯:《從機會到選擇:遺傳學與正義》(台北:巨流圖書公司,2004)

道納,史騰伯格著,王惟芬譯:《基因編輯大革命》(台北:遠見天下文化出版,2020)

麥可.桑德爾著,黃慧慧譯:《訂製完美》(台北:先覺出版,2021)

奈沙.卡雷著,陸維濃譯:《竄改基因》(台北:貓頭鷹出版,2022)

期刊論文

Buchanan, Allen. (2008). Enhancement and The Ethics of Development. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal Vol. 18, No.1, 1-34.

Lewens, Tim. (2008). Enhancement and Human Nature: The Case of Sandel. J Med Ethics 2009 35, 354-356.

巫康熙(2009)。〈對重度地中海貧血防治的衝擊〉,《中國醫訊》第67期,頁41-44。

林基興(2015)。〈黃金米的誕生與近況〉,《科學發展》第511期,頁12-17。

線上資料

Days of The Year.(2023). World Sickle Cell Day: Help increase public knowledge and awareness of Sickle Cell Disease, one of the main causes of death in children under the age of five in Africa. Retrieved 2023.01.19, from Days of The Year.
https://www.daysoftheyear.com/days/world-sickle-cell-awareness-day/

Pew Research Center. (2015). Eating Genetically Modified Foods. Retrieved 2015.01.29, from Pew Research Center.
https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2015/01/29/public-and-scientists-express-strikingly-different-views-about-science-related-issues/

Washington State University. (n.d.). Environmental Management of Young Pigs During Cool Weather, from Washington State University.
https://extension.wsu.edu/animalag/content/environmental-management-of-young-pigs-during-cool-weather/

蘇宇暉、羅凱揚,2022,〈網路效應:Network Effect〉,行銷資料科學,URL=https://medium.com/marketingdatascience/%E7%B6%B2%E8%B7%AF%E6%95%88%E6%87%89-network-effect-35d2a591fa5b (2023.04.08瀏覽)
指導教授 李凱恩 審核日期 2023-7-25
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