博碩士論文 109326601 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:10 、訪客IP:34.239.170.244
姓名 阮國慶(Nguyen Quoc Khanh)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 廢水處理廠 COD 和 TN 水質細分類 與脫硝效率之研究
(A study on the determination of COD and TN fraction and denitrification performance of wastewater treatment plants)
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摘要(中) 活性污泥模型(ASMs)在生物處理程序的多個面向中發揮著重要作用、包括研究、
設計、控制和優化。工程人員可使用這些模型來進行預測與評估。為了獲得可靠之結果、
模式模擬必須考慮水質之分解特性的細分類。本研究探討了臺灣生活污水和工業廢水之
進流水中的化學需氧量(COD)和總氧(TN)比率。COD 比率是通過呼吸測量法進行
量測、該方法量化了生物降解過程中的氧氣攝取率(OUR)、是一種廣泛應用的技術。
TN 比率是使用轉換係數和水環境研究基金會(WERF)所描述的直接測量方法進行評
估。對這些分析結果的比較和總結將確立臺灣廢污水之水質特性方法的適用性。此外、
將使用典型的 MLE 和 OAO 程序評估 COD 和 TN 比率、並觀察本土水質的脫硝速率、
從而調整操作參數來增強除氮成效。
對於本土水質的 COD 細分類結果顯示、未過初沉池的生活污水可以分為以下幾類:
易降解 COD(SS)約佔 12.6%、緩慢降解 COD(XS)約佔 45.6%、溶解性惰性 COD(SI)
約佔 3.7%和顆粒性惰性 COD(XI)約佔 38.1%。另一方面、工業廢水的特性為 SS 約
25.4%、XS約 11.6%、SI約 30.1%和 XI約 32.9%;已過初沉池的生活污水包含 SS約 18.4%、
XS 約 57.2%、SI 約 6.6%、XI 約 17.8%。另一方面、工業廢水的特性為 SS 約 25.4%、XS
約 11.6%、SI約 30.1%和 XI約 32.9%。
根據總氮(TN)的直接測量確立了進流水的分類。在這個分類中,氨氮(SNH)約
佔 72.9%、溶解性可生物降解有機氮(SND)約佔 5.5%、不可生物降解的顆粒性有機氮
(XND)約佔 14.2%、溶解性惰性有機氮(SNI)約佔 2.8%、顆粒性惰性有機氮(XNI)約
佔總氮含量的 4.6%。對於未過初沉池的生活污水樣品、氮比率包括約 62.8%的 SNH、約
2.9%的 SND、約 18.4%的 XND、約 1.0%的 SNI和約 14.9%的 XNI。在工業廢水中、氮形式
的分佈因行業類型而異。通常、總氮的主要貢獻為 NO3
-
-N 和 NO2
-
-N、其中 NO3
-
-N 約
佔 34.1%、NO2
-
-N 約佔 16.1%、SNH約佔 20.4%、SND約佔 1.1%、XND 約佔 5.4%、SNI約
佔 8.0%、XNI 約佔 14.9%。通過利用轉換係數與質量平衡、本研究建議了新的氮轉換係
數:未過初沉池之生活污水的iN,SS為 0.03、iN,XS為 0.07、iN,SI為 0.05、iN,XI為 0.07;已過
初沉池之生活污水的iN,SS為 0.06、iN,XS為 0.06、iN,SI為 0.1、iN,XI為 0.06;而工業廢水的
iN,SS為 0.01、iN,XS為 0.06、iN,SI為 0.02、iN,XI為 0.06。
當碳氮比(C/N)不足時、脫硝能力受限、由於進流水中碳源不足、從而降低除氮效率。
摘要(英) Activated sludge models (ASMs) play a significant role in numerous aspects of biological
treatment processes, including research, design, control, and optimization. Handlers employ
these models to make forecasts and assessments. To ensure accurate results, the model
simulation must consider the subdivisions of water quality characteristics. In this study, I
investigated the proportions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) in the
influent water quality of Taiwanese domestic and industrial wastewater. The determination of
COD fractions was accomplished through a respirometry assay, which quantifies the oxygen
uptake rate (OUR) during biodegradation and is a widely employed technique. The TN fractions
were assessed using the conversion coefficient and the direct measurement method described
by Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF). The comparative and summarizing
assessment of the outcomes of these analyses ascertained the suitability of water quality
characteristic methodologies in Taiwan. Furthermore, the COD and TN fractions were
evaluated using a typical Modified Ludzack Ettinger (MLE) and Oxic-Anoxic-Oxic (OAO)
processes, while observing the denitrification rate of local water quality. Operating parameters
were adjusted to enhance nitrogen removal.
The detailed classification COD results of local water quality reveal that settled domestic
wastewater could be categorized as follows: readily biodegradable COD (SS) accounted for
approximately 18.4%, slowly biodegradable COD (XS) represented around 57.2%, soluble inert
COD (SI) accounted for approximately 6.6%, and particulate inert COD (XI) contributed about
17.8%. Raw domestic wastewater, on the other hand, consisted of about 12.6% SS,
approximately 45.6% XS, around 3.7% SI, and approximately 38.1% XI. Finally, ordinary
industrial wastewater was characterized by approximately 25.4% SS, around 11.6% XS,
approximately 30.1% SI, and about 32.9% XI.
The classification of influent based on TN (Total nitrogen) was determined through direct
measurement. In this classification, for settled domestic wastewater, ammonia nitrogen (SNH)
accounted for approximately 72.9%, soluble biodegradable organic nitrogen (SND) accounted
for around 5.5%, particulate biodegradable organic nitrogen (XND) contributed about 14.2%,
soluble inert organic nitrogen (SNI) contributed approximately 2.8%, and particulate inert
organic nitrogen (XNI) accounted for approximately 4.6% of the total nitrogen content. For raw
domestic wastewater, the nitrogen fractions consisted of approximately 62.8% SNH, SND around
2.9%, XND about 18.4%, SNI approximately 1.0%, and XNI around 14.9%. In industrial
wastewater, the distribution of nitrogen forms varied depending on the industry type. Generally,
iii
NO3
-
-N and NO2
-
-N were the major contributors to the total nitrogen content, with NO3
-
-N
accounted for approximately 34.1%, NO2
-
-N for around 16.1%, SNH about 20.4%, SND around
1.1%, XND approximately 5.4%, SNI around 8.0%, and XNI about 14.9% of the total nitrogen
content. By applying conversion factors and utilizing mass balance, this research had generated
new nitrogen conversion factors: settled domestic wastewater 0.06 for iN,SS
, 0.06 for iN,XS
, 0.1
for iN,SI
and 0.06 for iN,XI
; raw domestic wastewater 0.03 for iN,SS
, 0.07 for iN,XS
, 0.05 for
iN,SI
and 0.07 for iN,XI
; industrial wastewater 0.01 for iN,SS
, 0.06 for iN,XS
, 0.02 for iN,SI
and
0.06 for iN,XI
.
The denitrification capacity was constrained when the carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio was
insufficient, resulting in low nitrogen removal efficiency attributable to the low carbon source
in the influent.
關鍵字(中) ★ COD 細分類
★ TN 細分類
★ 廢水特性
★ 生活廢水
★ 工業廢水
★ 脫硝
關鍵字(英) ★ COD fractions
★ TN fractions
★ wastewater characteristics
★ domestic wastewater
★ industrial wastewater
★ denitrification
論文目次 摘要............................................................................................................................................i
Abstract......................................................................................................................................ii
Acknowledgement..................................................................................................................... v
Table of Contents...................................................................................................................... vi
List of tables ...........................................................................................................................viii
List of figures ............................................................................................................................ x
Abbreviations .........................................................................................................................xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction............................................................................................................... 1
1-1 Problem identification..................................................................................................... 1
1-2 Objectives........................................................................................................................ 3
Chapter 2 Literature Review...................................................................................................... 4
2-1 Characterization of COD fractions.................................................................................. 4
2-1-1 COD versus BOD as a modeling parameter ............................................................ 5
2-1-2 COD fractions.......................................................................................................... 6
2-1-3 Biological characterization ...................................................................................... 9
2-1-4 Methodology of COD fraction determination........................................................ 14
2-2 Characterization of TKN fractions................................................................................ 24
2-2-1 TKN fractions ........................................................................................................ 24
2-2-2 Methodology of TKN fraction determination........................................................ 25
2-3 Heterotrophic denitrification......................................................................................... 30
2-3-1 Organic carbon sources for denitrification............................................................. 31
2-3-2 Hydrolysis of organic matter.................................................................................. 32
2-3-3 Rate-limiting substrate uptake ............................................................................... 32
Chapter 3 Materials and Methods............................................................................................ 33
3-1 Preparation .................................................................................................................... 33
3-2 Research structure ......................................................................................................... 33
3-3 COD fractions method .................................................................................................. 36
3-3-1 BCOD estimation method...................................................................................... 36
3-3-2 Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) .................................................................................... 37
3-4 TKN fractions method................................................................................................... 45
3-5 Nitrate uptake rate (NUR)............................................................................................. 47
3-6 Experimental materials, equipment and analytical methods......................................... 53
vii
3-6-1 Experimental materials .......................................................................................... 53
3-6-2 Experimental equipment ........................................................................................ 55
3-6-3 Analytical methods................................................................................................. 56
3-6-4 Measure maximum specific growth rate µmax and half substrate saturation constant
KS..................................................................................................................................... 56
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion ........................................................................................... 58
4-1 Wastewater characteristics analysis results................................................................... 58
4-2 The optimal initial loading (So/Xo) ............................................................................... 59
4-3 Heterotroph yield coefficient ........................................................................................ 61
4-4 Biodegradable COD...................................................................................................... 65
4-5 Characterization of COD fractions................................................................................ 68
4-5-1 Soluble biodegradable COD value from OUR test................................................ 68
4-5-2 Maximum specific growth rate µmax and half substrate saturation constant KS..... 70
4-5-3 COD fractions........................................................................................................ 73
4-6 Characterization of TN fractions................................................................................... 83
4-7 Denitrification performance .......................................................................................... 88
4-7-1 Acetate as a control model ..................................................................................... 88
4-7-2 Raw wastewater as carbon source.......................................................................... 94
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations..................................................................... 103
5-1 Conclusions................................................................................................................. 103
5-1-1 COD fractions...................................................................................................... 103
5-1-2 TN fractions ......................................................................................................... 104
5-1-3 Heterotroph denitrification................................................................................... 104
5-2 Recommendations....................................................................................................... 106
References ............................................................................................................................. 107
Appendix ............................................................................................................................... 114
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指導教授 莊順興(‪Shun-hsing Chuang) 審核日期 2023-7-25
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