博碩士論文 109624007 詳細資訊

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姓名 莊承家(Cheng-Jia Jhuang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 應用地質研究所
論文名稱 臺灣西南部車瓜林斷層之斷層岩石及變形機制
(Fault rocks and deformation mechanism of the Chegualin active fault in SW Taiwan)
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摘要(中) 車瓜林斷層於2021年被地調所歸類為第一類活動斷層,斷層跡主要分布在厚層泥岩所組成的古亭坑層中;多種大地測量皆顯示車瓜林斷層有持續性的潛移活動,對斷層跡通過處的建築產生結構變形及破壞。泥岩區容易受沖刷侵蝕影響使地形快速改變,斷層跡的分布無法利用地形明顯觀察,而過往的野外調查發現斷層作用可使泥岩產狀發生改變並出露於露頭。本研究基於陳新翰(2021)對車瓜林斷層所進行中視尺度觀察的發現,¬斷層岩內具有數公厘到一、兩公分寬的應變集中產物的黑色條帶,在其研究的斷層露頭及斷層岩心中採取圍岩及斷層岩樣本並利用微組構觀察、礦物組成分析及同步X光繞射,探討車瓜林斷層的變形機制。
微組構觀察顯示斷層岩內具有S-C構造;黑色條帶內部礦物顆粒產生破碎、變形,片狀礦物及礦物顆粒長軸沿黑色條帶方向產生順向排列,黏土礦物沿S、C、C’面產生順向性排列,石英粒徑在黑色條帶中產生粒徑削減,顯示黑色條帶為岩體中的變形帶,主要透過摩擦滑動(fricitional sliding)並伴隨碎裂作用(cataclasis)產生,因此黑色條帶的寬度及密度可作為斷層岩變形程度的指標。
摘要(英) The Chegualin fault (CGLF) has been acknowledged as an active fault by the Central Geological Survey since 2021. The fault trace of CGLF mainly appeared in the Gutingkeng formation, which is mainly composed of thickly bedded mudstone. Onsite geodetic measurements suggested that the CGFL has continuous creeping movement. The movement caused damage to the infrastructures straddling the fault trace. But evidence of the fault trace like fault scarps are rarely preserved due to the rapid change of the topography caused by surface erosion in the mudstone region. Through field investigation in the areas which show high surface displacement velocity gradients revealed by geodetic monitoring. Previous research found out that the occurrence of the mudstone in the area was different from others and concluded that the occurrence difference was caused by the faulting of CGLF. Therefore, this research is based on the finding derived from the mesoscale observations by Chen (2021) that black bands with a thickness ranging from several mm to 1 or 2 cm , which is a product of strain localization, appear in argillaceous Chegualin fault rocks. Wall rock and fault rock samples were collected from the same fault outcrop and rock core as Chen (2021). Microscopic observations, mineral assemblage analysis and synchrotron XRD on these samples were performed to obtain understanding of the deformation mechanism of the CGLF.
The microscopic observations show that S-C fabric occur in fault rocks and mineral grains are fractured, deformed and forming preferred orientation in the black bands. Within the black bands, clay minerals alignment along S, C and C’ shear surface and the grain size reduction of quartz are observed. These evidence suggests that the black bands are mainly formed by frictional sliding accompanied by cataclasis and serve as deformation bands within the rocks. The density of black bands within the fault rocks can indicate how severe they were deformed.
The whole rock mineral assemblage analysis indicates that the content of clay minerals increase and the crystallinity of illite decreases with the increase of deformation intensity of the rock. The clay mineral assemblage analysis indicates that the fluid-rock interaction occurred within the fault zone. Comparing the EI (Esquevin-indices) of illite in between wall rocks and black fault rocks, we inferred that the smectite-illite transition did not occur within the fault zone. Therefore the decrease of illite crystallinity may result from the generation of defects in the lattices of illite during grain size reduction.
The synchrotron XRD analysis indicates that black bands contain amorphous materials. Based on the result of the aforementioned observations and the previous research about the formation of amorphous materials, we interpreted that the amorphous materials in the black bands were formed through comminution of clasts during the faulting. The fluid-rock interaction occurs since the dehydration of clay minerals during comminution. The grinded minerals rich in mobile elements are dissolved and consumed which let the clay minerals preserved and increase relatively, also the fluid can react with amorphous materials forming smectite.
The forming of the S-C fabric and the increasing content of the clay minerals will weaken the rock strength by reducing the frictional coefficient are documented by experiment test. Therefore we inferred that the deformation caused by the faulting is accommodated by the fault zone of CGLF but mainly localized in the position where black fractured mudstone distributed, forming distributed deformation. The presence of amorphous materials in the fault zone suggests the ongoing amorphization caused by the recent faulting of the CGLF, implicated that the forming of amorphous materials may be related to the creeping movement of the CGLF.
關鍵字(中) ★ 車瓜林斷層
★ 微組構
★ 礦物組成
★ 非晶質材料
★ 變形機制
關鍵字(英) ★ Chegualin fault
★ Microstructures
★ Mineral assemblage
★ Amorphous materials
★ Deformation mechanism
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 VI
目錄 VII
圖目錄 X
表目錄 XIII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究目的 1
第二章 研究區域概述 4
2-1 地質背景 4
2-2 地形 5
2-3 地層 5
2-3-1 古亭坑層 5
2-3-2 崎頂層 5
2-4 斷層 6
2-4-1 車瓜林斷層 6
2-4-2 古亭坑斷層 7
2-4-3 龍船斷層 7
2-4-4 鼓山斷層 7
2-4-5 旗山斷層 8
第三章 前人文獻回顧 15
3-1 斷層帶組成 15
3-2 變形機制 18
3-3 斷層帶礦物組成 22
第四章 研究方法 24
4-1 樣本採集 24
4-1-1 斷層露頭樣本採樣 24
4-1-2 斷層岩心採樣 29
4-2 微組構觀察 32
4-2-1 樣本製備 32
4-2-2 偏光顯微鏡觀察 32
4-2-3 掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察 32
4-3 礦物組成分析 35
4-3-1 全岩X光粉末繞射 35
4-3-2 黏土礦物X光粉末繞射 38
4-3-3 同步X光繞射分析 41
第五章 研究結果 42
5-1 偏光顯微鏡觀察 42
5-2 掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察 49
5-2-1 淺灰色泥岩 49
5-2-2 黃棕色破碎泥岩 49
5-2-3 黑色破碎泥岩 50
5-2-4 灰色泥岩 51
5-3 X光繞射結果 61
5-3-1 全岩礦物組成及相對含量 61
5-3-2 黏土礦物組成及相對含量 65
5-3-3 伊萊石結晶度與化學指標 69
5-3-4 同步X光繞射結果 71
第六章 討論 73
6-1 黑色條帶的變形機制 73
6-2 斷層岩的礦物組成變化 74
6-3 車瓜林斷層帶的變形機制與隱示 75
第七章 結論與建議 77
參考文獻 79
附錄(一) 樣本照片 85
附錄(二) 岩石薄片照片 89
附錄(三) X光繞射相關參數 91
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指導教授 黃文正 郭力維(Wen-Jeng Huang Li-Wei Kuo) 審核日期 2023-2-1
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