博碩士論文 110326011 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:12 、訪客IP:100.28.227.63
姓名 陳亮宇(Liang-Yu Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 推動循環經濟政策對水泥廠汞排放特性及質量分佈之影響探討
(Effect of Promoting Circular Economy Policy on the Characteristics and Mass Distribution of Mercury Emitted from Cement Plant)
相關論文
★ 國內汽車業表面塗裝製程VOCs減量技術探討★ 光電廠溫室效應氣體排放量推估-以龍潭廠區為例
★ 受苯、甲苯與1,2-二氯乙烷污染場址之案例研究★ TFT-LCD產業揮發性有機物(VOCs)空氣污染之減量與防制之研究
★ 膠帶製造業VOCs排放與防制效率之探討★ 校園環境噪音對國三學生煩擾度及學習成就的影響-以桃園縣某國中為例
★ 醫療業從業人員職業災害分析探討-以某區域醫院為例★ 面板製程之有害物暴露評估-以A廠為例
★ 更換低噪音工具以改善廠房噪音之研究-以汽車製造A廠為例★ 以高溫熔融還原法回收不銹鋼集塵灰中鉻與鎳之效益探討
★ 以介電質放電技術轉化四氟甲烷及六氟乙烷之初步探討★ 垃圾焚化爐空氣污染控制設備影響戴奧辛排放特性之初步探討
★ 以活性碳吸附煙道排氣中戴奧辛之初步研究★ 以低溫電漿去除揮發性有機物之研究
★ 北台灣大氣環境中戴奧辛濃度之分布特性研究★ 介電質放電技術控制小型重油鍋爐氮氧化物排放之可行性研究
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   至系統瀏覽論文 (2025-8-1以後開放)
摘要(中) 本研究針對水泥廠進行調查,對煙道氣之汞排放特性進行探討,並採集其製程物料用以研究循環經濟下,水泥廠接收不穩定汞濃度之再生物料使用,於此情形下之汞質量流布與平衡。調查之水泥廠兩排放管道煙道汞濃度皆超過目前草案標準(50 µg/m3),而煙道氣的汞來源以原物料為主,因此了解水泥廠汞輸入至關重要。調查之水泥廠汞輸入主要以的鐵渣為主(40.9%),石灰石(23.0%)次之,再者為矽砂(13.4%),再生物料中的燃煤飛灰(8.84%)與水洗飛灰(5.67%)的佔比也是相當的高。在原物料與再生物料比率及其汞流率佔比,可見再生物料單位汞含量(0.2667 mg/kg)遠高於原物料(0.0652 mg/kg),由此可見灰(鐵渣、煤灰、水洗灰)等再生物料的使用,改變了水泥廠汞輸入結構;中間產物的生料磨後集塵灰含汞量最高(達19.7 mg/kg),並以同為集塵灰的煤磨後集塵灰濃度第二(達14.7 mg/kg),混合生料汞含度則為2.05 mg/kg,由此可見三個中間產物的富集能力強;而水泥廠汞輸出主要以煙道氣之汞輸出為主,其輸出汞質量流率為16.34 g/hr,佔總輸出之98.8%,而熟料輸出汞質量流率為0.16 g/hr,佔總輸出之1.1%。汞排放係數(Mercury emission factor, MEF) 指單位時間或單位產量內排放的汞量,可用於風險評估。由文獻蒐集資料發現水泥業煙囪MEF值介於1.8 ~ 253 mg Hg/ton clinker,本研究之生料磨煙囪其排放係數為165 mg Hg/ton clinker相對較高的,而煤磨煙囪排放係數則為6.6 mg Hg/ton clinker,其值相對較低。本研究之質量平衡比率為130%,雖然說是偏高但介於70 ~ 130%屬於可以接受的範圍。循環經濟對水泥製程中的汞排放有重大影響,水泥業的再生物料使用量逐年上升,而水泥業汞排放濃度與排放係數也有逐漸上升之趨勢。調查高汞含量之樣品發現,汞以化學吸附方式吸附於中間產物,而中間產物經過高溫後再次釋放至煙道中並以元素汞形式排放至大氣中。對於汞排放濃度增加,廠方可以增加防制設備或停止回流水泥廠產生之飛灰,政府目前對排放濃度之改善政策以降低再生物料汞含量為主,但本研究認為可能需與美國政策相同,對於進料之汞含量限制,降低汞排放濃度以達排放標準。
摘要(英) This study delves into the mass flow and balance of mercury in a cement plant, and investigates the emission characteristics of mercury from flue gas. Additionally, the causes of high mercury concentration in solid sample due to the implementation of circular economy policy are studied. In short, the study investigates mercury flows through out the cement plant, particularly as the plant receives fly ash with unstable mercury concentrations as recycled material. The research reveals that the primary mercury input in the cement plant investigated is iron slag (40.9%), followed by limestone (23.0%) and silica sand (13.4%). The contributions of coal fly ash (8.84%) and washed fly ash (5.67%) are also significant. The data on the mercury flow rate from raw material and recycled material indicate that mercury content of recycled material (0.2667 mg/kg) is much higher than that of raw material (0.0652 mg/kg). The study shows that the use of recycled materials, including iron slag, coal ash, and washed fly ash, has altered the structure of mercury input in this cement plant. This study also demonstrates that intermediate products of the cement production process have a strong ability to enrich mercury, with the concentration of mercury in the dust collected in raw mill reaches 19.7 mg/kg, followed by 14.7 mg/kg in dust collection in coal mill, and 2.05 mg/kg in raw meal. The mercury output of cement plant is mainly via flue gas, with the mercury mass flow rate of 16.34 g/hr, accounting for 98.8% of the total output, while the clinker output mercury mass flow rate is only 0.16 g/hr (1.1%) of total output. The mercury emission factor (MEF) refers to the amount of mercury emitted per unit clinker produced. Previous studies indicate that the MEF value ranges from 1.8 to 253 mg Hg/ton clinker. The MEF of the raw mill stack in this plant is 165 mg Hg/ton clinker, while the MEF from coal mill stack is 6.6 mg/ton clinker. The mass balance ratio of this study is 130%, which is within the acceptable range (70 ~ 130%). The circular economy has a significant impact on mercury emissions in the cement manufacturing process. The amount of recycled materials used in the cement industry is increasing year by year, and the mercury emission from the cement industry is also gradually increasing. Investigation of solid samples indicates that the mercury was chemisorbed in intermediate products, which were released again into the flue gas at high temperatures and emitted into the atmosphere in elemental form. Overall, this study indicates that we should carefully examine all the materials applied and enhance the performance of APCDs to reduce mercury emission.
關鍵字(中) ★ 汞及其化合物
★ 水泥廠
★ 質量流布與平衡
★ 循環經濟
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 摘要 II
Abstract IV
誌謝..............................................................................................................................VI
目錄 VII
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究源起 1
1.2 研究目的與範疇 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 汞之基本特性 4
2.2 汞對環境與人體之影響 4
2.3 汞排放結構 5
2.3.1 全球汞排放結構 5
2.3.2 國內汞排放結構 7
2.4 汞排放控制技術 8
2.4.1 選擇性觸媒還原系統(SCR) 8
2.4.2 袋式集塵器(FF)、靜電集塵器(ESP)及電袋複合集塵器(hybrid filter) 9
2.4.3 濕式排煙脫硫系統(WFGD)及海水排煙脫硫系統(SWFGD) 10
2.5 水泥生產過程中汞之轉化 10
2.6 水泥業汞排放相關法規 12
2.7 煙道排氣汞採樣及分析方法 13
2.8 循環經濟推動與水泥廠之關聯性 15
第三章 研究方法 16
3.1 研究流程與架構 16
3.2 實場採樣調查 16
3.2.1 空氣污染防制設備與採樣點 16
3.2.2 煙道氣中汞之採樣與分析 17
3.2.3 固體樣品之採樣與分析 23
3.3 計算公式 25
第四章 結果與討論 26
4.1 A廠背景資料 26
4.2 煙道氣採樣及分析 27
4.3 固體樣品含汞量及成分分析 31
4.4 汞質量流布 39
4.5 汞質量平衡 41
4.6 汞排放係數 43
第五章 結論與建議 44
5.1 結論 44
5.2 建議 45
參考文獻 46
附錄一 汞採樣紀錄表 50
附錄二 QA/QC檢測項目 51
參考文獻 Achternbosch, M., Bräutigam, K.R., Hartlieb, N., Kupsch, C., Richers, U., & Stemmermann, P. (2005). Impact of the use of waste on trace element concentrations in cement and concrete. Waste Management & Research, 23(4), 328-337.
Bose-O′Reilly, S., McCarty, K.M., Steckling, N., & Lettmeier, B. (2010). Mercury exposure and children′s health. Current Problems in Pediatrics Adolescent Health Care, 40(8), 186-215.
Chen, B., Liu, G., & Sun, R. (2016). Distribution and fate of mercury in pulverized bituminous coal-fired power plants in coal energy-dominant Huainan City, China. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 70, 724-733.
Choi, H., Lee, S., & Kim, S.S. (2009). The effect of activated carbon injection rate on the removal of elemental mercury in a particulate collector with fabric filters. Fuel Processing Technology, 90(1), 107-112.
Chou, C.P., Chang, T.C., Chiu, C.H., & Hsi, H.C. (2018). Mercury speciation and mass distribution of cement production process in Taiwan. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 18(11), 2801-2812.
Deng, S., Shu, Y., Li, S., Tian, G., Huang, J., & Zhang, F. (2016). Chemical forms of the fluorine, chlorine, oxygen and carbon in coal fly ash and their correlations with mercury retention. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 301, 400-406.
Galbreath, K.C., & Zygarlicke, C.J. (2000). Mercury transformations in coal combustion flue gas. Fuel Processing Technology, 65, 289-310.
Hrdlicka, J.A., Seames, W.S., Mann, M.D., Muggli, D.S., & Horabik, C.A. (2008). Mercury oxidation in flue gas using gold and palladium catalysts on fabric filters. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(17), 6677-6682.
Huang, W.J., Xu, H.M., Qu, Z., Zhao, S.J., Chen, W.M., & Yan, N.Q. (2016). Significance of Fe2O3 modified SCR catalyst for gas-phase elemental mercury oxidation in coal-fired flue gas. Fuel Processing Technology, 149, 23-28.
Huang, Y., Yin, Z.C., Chen, Y., & Guo, X. (2018). Experimental study on gaseous elemental mercury removal by wet electrostatic precipitators. Fuel, 234, 1337-1345.
Hutson, N.D., Attwood, B.C., & Scheckel, K.G. (2007). XAS and XPS characterization of mercury binding on brominated activated carbon. Environmental Science & Technology, 41(5), 1747-1752.
Jang, H.N., Back, S.K., Sung, J.H., Kang, Y.S., Jurng, J., & Seo, Y.C. (2018). The simultaneous capture of mercury and fine particles by hybrid filter with powder activated carbon injection. Environmental Pollution, 237, 531-540.
Karstensen, K.H., Kinh, N.K., Viet, P.H., Tuan, N.D., Toi, D.T., Hung, N.H., Quan, T.M., Hanh, L.D., & Thang, D.H. (2006). Environmentally sound destruction of obsolete pesticides in developing countries using cement kilns. Environmental Science & Policy, 9(6), 577-586.
Kline, J., & Schreiber, R. (2013). Mercury balances in modern cement plants. 2013 IEEE-IAS/PCA Cement Industry Technical Conference,
Kushwaha, S., Sreedhar, B., & Padmaja, P. (2010). Sorption of phenyl mercury, methyl mercury, and inorganic mercury onto chitosan and barbital immobilized chitosan: spectroscopic, potentiometric, kinetic, equilibrium, and selective desorption studies. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 55(11), 4691-4698.
Laumb, J.D., Benson, S.A., & Olson, E.A. (2004). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of mercury sorbent surface chemistry. Fuel Processing Technology, 85(6-7), 577-585.
Lee, C.W., Srivastava, R.K., Ghorishi, S.B., Hastings, T.W., & Stevens, F.M. (2003). Study of speciation of mercury under simulated SCR NOx emission control conditions. Combined Power Plant Air Pollutant Control Mega Symposium, Washington, DC,
Li, G., Wang, S., Wu, Q., Li, J., Chen, Z., Li, J., Wang, F., Han, D., Li, Z., & Tang, Y. (2022). Mercury emission characteristics and mechanism in the raw mill system of cement clinker production. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 430, 128403.
Li, X., Chen, J., Tang, L., Wu, T., Fu, C., Li, Z., Sun, G., Zhou, H., Zhang, L., Li, Q.,
& Feng, X. (2021). Mercury isotope signatures of a pre-calciner cement plant in Southwest China. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 401, 123384.
Li, X., Li, Z., Wu, T., Chen, J., Fu, C., Zhang, L., Feng, X., Fu, X., Tang, L., & Wang, Z. (2019). Atmospheric mercury emissions from two pre-calciner cement plants in Southwest China. Atmospheric Environment, 199, 177-188.
Li, Y., Lee, C., & Gullett, B. (2003). Importance of activated carbon′s oxygen surface functional groups on elemental mercury adsorption. Fuel, 82(4), 451-457.
Luo, G., Yao, H., Xu, M., Gupta, R., & Xu, Z. (2011). Identifying modes of occurrence of mercury in coal by temperature programmed pyrolysis. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 33(2), 2763-2769.
Luttrell, G.H., Kohmuench, J.N., & Yoon, R.H. (2000). An evaluation of coal preparation technologies for controlling trace element emissions. Fuel Processing Technology, 65, 407-422.
Mlakar, T.L., Horvat, M., Vuk, T., Stergaršek, A., Kotnik, J., Tratnik, J., & Fajon, V. (2010). Mercury species, mass flows and processes in a cement plant. Fuel, 89(8), 1936-1945.
Munthe, J., Kindbom, K., Parsmo, R., & Yaramenka, K. (2019). Technical Background Report to the Global Mercury Assessment 2018. In: IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
Ozuah, P.O. (2000). Mercury poisoning. Current Problems in Pediatrics, 30(3), 91-99.
Reijnders, L. (2007). The cement industry as a scavenger in industrial ecology and the management of hazardous substances. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 11(3), 15-25.
Senior, C.L. (2006). Oxidation of mercury across selective catalytic reduction catalysts in coal–fired power plants. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56(1), 23-31.
Shu, T., Lu, P., & He, N. (2013). Mercury adsorption of modified mulberry twig chars in a simulated flue gas. Bioresource Technology, 136, 182-187.
Su, S., Liu, L., Wang, L., Syed-Hassan, S.S.A., Kong, F., Hu, S., Wang, Y., Jiang, L., Xu, K., & Zhang, A. (2017). Mass flow analysis of mercury transformation and effect of seawater flue gas desulfurization on mercury removal in a full-scale coal-fired power plant. Energy & Fuels, 31(10), 11109-11116.
Sung, J.H., Back, S.K., Jung, B.M., Kang, Y.S., Lee, C.G., Jang, H.N., & Seo, Y.C. (2017). Speciation and capture performance of mercury by a hybrid filter in a coal-fired power plant. International Journal of Coal Geology, 170, 35-40.
Tchounwou, P.B., Ayensu, W.K., Ninashvili, N., & Sutton, D. (2003). Environmental exposure to mercury and its toxicopathologic implications for public health. Environmental Toxicology: An International Journal, 18(3), 149-175.
Uaciquete, D.L., Sakusabe, K., Kato, T., Okawa, H., Sugawara, K., & Nonaka, R. (2021). Influence of unburned carbon on mercury chemical forms in fly ash produced from a coal-fired power plant. Fuel, 300, 120802.
UNEP, (2019) "Global Mercury Assessment 2018. "
Van Oss, H.G., & Padovani, A.C. (2002). Cement manufacture and the environment: part I: chemistry and technology. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 6(1), 89-105.
Wang, F., Wang, S., Zhang, L., Yang, H., Wu, Q., & Hao, J. (2014). Mercury enrichment and its effects on atmospheric emissions in cement plants of China. Atmospheric Environment, 92, 421-428.
Wang, F., Wang, S., Zhang, L., Yang, H., Wu, Q., & Hao, J. (2016). Characteristics of mercury cycling in the cement production process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 302, 27-35.
Won, J.H., & Lee, T.G. (2012). Estimation of total annual mercury emissions from cement manufacturing facilities in Korea. Atmospheric Environment, 62, 265-271.
Xu, W., Pan, J., Fan, B., & Liu, Y. (2019). Removal of gaseous elemental mercury using seaweed chars impregnated by NH4Cl and NH4Br. Journal of Cleaner Production, 216, 277-287.
Zhang, C., Zhang, Y.H., Wang, Y.M., Wang, D.Y., Luo, C.Z., Xu, F., & He, X.Q. (2017). Characteristics of mercury emissions from modern dry processing cement plants in Chongqing. Huan Jing ke Xue, 38(6), 2287-2293.
Zhang, L. (2007). Research on mercury emission measurement and estimate from combustion resources. Zhejiang University, China (in Chinese).
Zhang, L., Wang, D., Liu, Y., Kamasamudram, K., Li, J., & Epling, W. (2014). SO2 poisoning impact on the NH3-SCR reaction over a commercial Cu-SAPO-34 SCR catalyst. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 156, 371-377.
Zhang, L., Wang, S., Wu, Q., Wang, F., Lin, C.J., Zhang, L., Hui, M., Yang, M., Su, H., & Hao, J. (2016). Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(4), 2417-2433.
Zheng, J.-M., Shah, K. J., Zhou, J.-S., Pan, S.-Y., & Chiang, P.-C. (2017). Impact of HCl and O2 on removal of elemental mercury by heat-treated activated carbon: Integrated X-ray analysis. Fuel Processing Technology, 167, 11-17.
Zhou, W., Yu, L., Li, D., & Shiau, Y.C. (2016). Thermodynamic effects of alkaline earth metals on homogenous mercury oxidation during calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and coal combustion. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 98(3-4), 303-312.
Zhou, Z.J., Liu, X.W., Zhao, B., Chen, Z.G., Shao, H.Z., Wang, L.L., & Xu, M.H. (2015). Effects of existing energy saving and air pollution control devices on mercury removal in coal-fired power plants. Fuel Processing Technology, 131, 99-108.
行政院環境保護署,執行聯合國汞水俣公約推動計畫2021年執行成果,2022。
行政院環境保護署,固定污染源管理資訊公開平台
行政院環境保護署,固定源排放減量輔導會議,2023
指導教授 張木彬(Moo-Been Chang) 審核日期 2023-8-9
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明