博碩士論文 110326028 詳細資訊




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姓名 李羿(Yi Li)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 臺灣石門水庫及入庫河川表層水中微型塑膠時空分佈、組成與相關性調查
(Distribution, Composition, and Correlation of Microplastics in the Surface Waters from Taiwan Shihmen Reservoir and its Inflow Rivers)
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摘要(中) 目前全球對於環境中微型塑膠污染的議題愈來愈重視,在不同生態環境中都已發現微型塑膠的污染,其中包含人類活動較少的地方都已被污染。在各種生物的體內、人體器官中也都發現微型塑膠的存在,甚至連飲用水、食品中都有。微型塑膠因具有較高的比表面積,因此容易吸附環境中的污染物,當生物攝入微型塑膠後,這些污染物可能在生物體內脫附後影響其健康,而這些生物最後可能又被人類攝入。
目前河川已經被確認是海洋中微型塑膠的主要來源之一,而臺灣對於淡水系統中微型塑膠的研究尚還不夠明瞭,因此本研究將在2022年7月至2023年5月,於石門水庫及其入庫河川進行微型塑膠之採樣調查,每月採樣一次,共採樣十次。以芬頓法和油分離法對表層水樣進行前處理,以尼羅紅染色法輔助識別微型塑膠,最後再以μ–Raman進行聚合物種類的鑑定。本研究旨在探討水庫及入庫河川中微型塑膠豐度、尺寸、形狀與時空分佈。在統計分析方面,將探討入庫河川集水區中土地利用類型面積百分比與微型塑膠之間的相關性。此外,還探討微型塑膠豐度與季節、降雨量之間的相關性。
調查結果顯示,石門水庫中微型塑膠平均豐度為6.00 ± 0.44 items/L。入庫河川中平均豐度為7.66 ± 3.53 items/L。石門水庫與入庫河川之形狀分布皆以碎片(Fragment)為主,在所有測站中都占90%以上;尺寸分佈以37–100 μm及100–300 μm為主,各占40%以上。共發現7種聚合物類型,以PE、PP與PS為主。統計分析結果顯示,水庫及入庫河川中微型塑膠豐度皆與降雨量有顯著相關性(p < 0.05),呈現中度正相關;同時水庫與入庫河川之微型塑膠豐度在濕季(5月– 10月)時比乾季(11月– 4月)更高;而微型塑膠豐度與土地利用類型百分比之間則沒有顯著相關性(p > 0.05)。
摘要(英) Microplastic pollution has become a global concern due to its widespread presence in various ecological environments, including less populated areas. Microplastics have been detected in organisms, including humans, as well as in drinking water and food. The high surface area-to-volume ratio of microplastics enables them to adsorb environmental pollutants. Upon ingestion by organisms, these pollutants can desorb within their bodies, potentially posing health risks. Moreover, these organisms may eventually be ingested by humans again, causing a threat to human health.
Although rivers have been identified as major sources of microplastics in the oceans, research on microplastics in freshwater systems in Taiwan remains limited. Therefore, this study aims to investigate microplastics in Shihmen Reservoir and its inflowing rivers from July 2022 to May 2023. Sampling was carried out monthly, resulting in a total of ten sampling events. Water samples were pretreated using the Fenton method and oil separation technique. Microplastic identification was facilitated using the Nile Red staining method, followed by polymer identification using μ-Raman spectroscopy. This study investigated the composition, abundance, and spatiotemporal distribution of microplastics within both the reservoir and the inflowing rivers. Regarding statistical analysis, we have examined the interrelation between the abundance of microplastics and the percentage of land use types within the watersheds of the four inflowing rivers. Furthermore, we have explored the potential connections between microplastic abundance and variables like seasonality and rainfall.
The results revealed that the average microplastic abundance in Shihmen Reservoir was 6.00±0.44 items/L, whereas in the inflowing rivers, it was 7.66±3.53 items/L. Fragmented microplastics constituted over 90% of all samples collected in both the reservoir and inflowing rivers. The predominant size ranges were 37–100 μm and 100–300 μm, accounting for over 40% each. Seven polymer types were identified, with PE, PP, and PS being the predominant ones. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation (p < .05) between microplastic abundance in the reservoir and inflowing rivers and rainfall. Furthermore, microplastic abundance was higher during the wet season compared to the dry season in both the reservoir and inflowing rivers. However, no significant correlation (p > .05) was observed between microplastic abundance and different types of anthropogenic activities.
關鍵字(中) ★ 微型塑膠
★ 水庫
★ 尼羅紅
★ 降雨量
★ 季節
關鍵字(英) ★ Microplastics
★ Reservoir
★ Nile Red
★ Rainfall
★ Season
論文目次 致謝 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的與重要性 3
第二章 文獻回顧與探討 4
2.1 塑膠之起源與發展 4
2.2 常見塑膠之種類與用途 5
2.3 微型塑膠之定義 7
2.4 微型塑膠之來源 8
2.5 微型塑膠於環境中的分佈 8
2.6 微型塑膠之影響 12
2.6.1 微型塑膠對生物的影響 12
2.6.2 微型塑膠對人體的影響 12
2.6.3 微型塑膠之來源控制 14
2.7 水生環境中微型塑膠的檢測 16
2.7.1 表層水採樣方法 16
2.7.2 微型塑膠之萃取 19
2.7.3 微型塑膠之物化分析 24
2.7.4 品質保證與品質控制 26
第三章 研究材料與方法 27
3.1 研究架構 27
3.2 研究區域與採樣方法 28
3.3 微型塑膠之萃取(Extraction) 31
3.3.1 氧化有機物 31
3.3.2 分離無機物 31
3.4 微型塑膠之定量(Quantification)與鑑定(Identification) 32
3.4.1 定量(Quantification) 32
3.4.2 鑑定(Identification) 34
3.5 品質保證與品質控制 34
3.5.1 方法回收率 35
3.5.2 空白試驗 35
3.5.3 污染控制 37
3.6 資料分析 38
3.6.1 污染風險評估 38
3.6.2 差異分析 39
3.6.3 相關分析 40
第四章 結果與討論 42
4.1 回收率試驗 42
4.2 空白試驗 43
4.2.1 程序空白(Procedural blanks) 43
4.2.2 空氣空白(Air blanks) 44
4.3 微型塑膠之豐度 46
4.3.1 石門水庫與入庫河川 46
4.3.2 與人為活動之相關性 51
4.3.3 乾季與濕季之差異 52
4.3.4 與降雨量之相關性 54
4.4 微型塑膠之形狀分佈 56
4.5 微型塑膠之尺寸分佈 58
4.6 聚合物類型 60
第五章 結論與建議 64
5.1 結論 64
5.2 建議與未來方向 65
參考文獻 66
附錄 84
附錄一 入庫河川集水區範圍與土地利用類型 84
附錄二 空白試驗結果圖像 85
附錄三 統計分析結果 86
附錄四 各測站於各採樣月份之微型塑膠形狀、尺寸分佈 88
附錄五 學位考試委員意見回覆表 95
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陳建匡(2022)。臺灣西部海域塑膠微粒在表層海水、海域底質及生物體內的分布及其相關性探討。國立清華大學分析與環境科學研究所碩士論文。新竹市。
經濟部水利署(2021)。
指導教授 林伯勳(Po-Hsun Lin) 審核日期 2023-8-17
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