博碩士論文 83322074 詳細資訊




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姓名 李俊憲(Jean-Shiann Lee)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 結合空間分析與專家系統技術在橋梁規劃自動化之應用
(Integrating Spatial Analysis and Expert System Techniques Applied to Bridge Automatic Planning)
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摘要(中) 在公路工程之興建與管理生命週期中,橋梁為扮演跨越河川、山谷等障礙物之重要公路設施,台灣因多山谷、且河川短且急促,且地狹人稠,公路系統中橋梁之數量不少。橋梁初始之規劃內容,實足影響後續之設計方針、施工方法與維護策略。早期因受限於設計與施工技術的不足,而造成目前橋梁維護工作的大量負荷。傳統以人力進行橋梁之規劃,必須考量空間、法規、需求、施工技術、地質等各項因素,每產生一個可行方案,往往耗費大量人力與時間,使得規劃者無法產生更多的替代方案,以選擇較佳且合適之規劃方案。
橋梁之規劃必須考量用路人因素、橋址地形、地物、環境因素、經濟性、整體配置、橋下淨空、結構型式與尺寸等,且必須根據不同的設計條件,不時地修正。橋梁規劃亦須考量橋梁主體與環境空間使用之間的衝突與平衡性,而橋梁規劃之結果亦將影響後續設計之內容、施工方法與未來維護之策略。因此,橋梁規劃工作之流程,除為不斷修正程序外,可視為規劃工作之生命週期循環。
本研究主要目的為提出一套適用於橋梁初步規劃階段之橋梁自動規劃系統(Automatic Bridge Planning System, 簡稱ABPS),ABPS整合物件導向與地理資訊技術記錄工址空間資訊,包括地形、地物、地質與水文等,並且以複合知識庫儲存公路路線設計規範及訪談自專家之橋梁規劃經驗。規劃者於地理資訊圖層中標定橋梁起迄點,並輸入規劃之需求條件後,ABPS將進行知識庫推理與空間分析,輸出符合工址條件與設計規範之最低成本較佳方案,輸出結果包括公路路線設計、橋廊分析、橋帶分析、跨距配置、落墩分析、構件型式尺寸、成本工期估算、橋梁橫斷面尺寸繪製等,可作為橋梁細部設計之基本準則。
摘要(英) Several factors influence a bridge’’s geometrical alignment and the length of its spans, thereby affecting the construction method and cost. In the preliminary design phase, the alignment and spans are typically designed according to the design engineer’’s experience. However, the resulting design, while feasible, may not be the most economical, due to the many possible combinations and permutations of span lengths.
This research presents an integrated, automatic bridge planning system (ABPS) in which relevant site data, such as hydrological and geological conditions, and existing obstacles, are computerized in an object-oriented environment. Code requirements for bridge design, common bridge construction methods, and knowledge elicited from experts, are represented in various knowledge bases. The system input is a set of start/end positions of the bridge, marked by the designer on a geographical map on the computer screen. The system outputs a set of most feasible solutions that not only meet the site conditions and code requirements, but also involve minimal construction costs. The output includes geometrical alignment, span lengths, structural units, and major beam sizes, which altogether serve as basic criteria for the detailed design of a bridge.
關鍵字(中) ★ 橋梁自動規劃
★ 物件導向程式
★ 專家系統
★ 地理資訊系統
★ 空間分析
關鍵字(英) ★ automatic system
★ bridge planning
★ expert system
★ object-oriented programming
★ spatial analysis
論文目次 謝誌I
中文摘要III
英文摘要IV
章節目錄V
圖目錄XI
表目錄XX
第一章 序論1
1.1 研究背景1
1.2 研究動機與目的3
1.3 研究範圍與限制4
1.4 研究內容與方法5
1.5 研究步驟6
1.6 論文架構說明8
第二章 文獻回顧11
2.1 橋梁之生命週期管理要項11
2.2 專家系統與空間分析技術在橋梁工程上之應用21
第三章 橋梁自動規劃架構之建立25
3.1 橋梁規劃工作內容與流程25
3.1.1 工址範圍分析25
3.1.2 橋梁跨距配置27
3.1.3 落墩可行性分析27
3.1.4 構件尺寸設定與估算29
3.1.5 成本、工期估算30
3.2 橋梁自動規劃系統內容與流程33
3.3 公路路線設計規範知識化38
3.3.1 設計規範之表達型式40
3.3.2 物件導向程式表達設計規範之型式47
3.3.3 建立設計程序52
3.4 物件化地理資訊圖層之建立57
3.4.1 橋梁規劃所需之圖層類型57
3.4.2 物件化地理資訊圖層之表達58
3.5橋廊之地理資訊分析63
3.5.1 基本假設與限制63
3.5.2 座標系統65
3.5.3 橋梁起訖點與公路走向限制範圍66
3.5.4 公路設計規範下之橋廊範圍空間演算67
3.5.5 空間條件限制下之橋廊區域空間演算73
3.5.6 橋梁範圍內橋帶之決定77
3.6 橋址空間資訊擷取之空間分析83
3.6.1 空間中直線與平曲線交會演算87
3.6.2 空間中兩直線交會演算89
3.6.3兩線交會之地理資訊判斷90
3.7 橋梁跨距之配置演算93
3.7.1 跨距配置採用上部結構工法類型93
3.7.2 工法組合型式99
3.7.3 跨距配置外型與尺寸比例100
3.7.4 跨距組合準則103
3.7.5 工法與跨距配置類型106
3.7.6 各種混合工法跨距配置型式106
3.7.7 跨距配置演算實例說明116
3.8 結構單元之配置演算142
3.9 配置方案與空間資訊之檢核演算144
3.9.1 獲取各橋墩相對於A1橋台之位置144
3.9.2 計算各橋墩所在地面高程145
3.9.3 計算河床斷面水位位置150
3.9.4 橋墩位置障礙物檢核152
3.9.5 適用基礎型式地質檢核157
3.9.6 上部結構施工高度限制檢核161
3.9.7 上部結構河道施工限制檢核163
3.9.8 跨距長度/橋墩高度美學比例檢核166
3.10 跨距配置方案之構件工法與典型尺寸之推理與設定168
3.10.1 大梁典型尺寸設定169
3.10.2 橋墩型式推理與尺寸設定179
3.10.3 基礎型式推理與尺寸設定185
3.10.4 橋台型式推理與尺寸設定189
3.11 跨距配置方案施工成本與施工工期之估算193
3.11.1 上部結構成本與工期計算194
3.11.2 橋台成本與工期計算198
3.11.3 橋台基礎成本與工期計算199
3.11.4 橋墩成本與工期計算200
3.11.5 橋墩基礎成本與工期計算202
3.12 較佳方案之評選204
第四章 系統開發206
4.1 ABPS系統架構與流程206
4.2 系統限制213
4.2.1 橋梁主體限制213
4.2.2 施工方法與構件型式限制214
4.3 系統開發軟體215
4.4 公路路線設計模組219
4.4.1 設計規範物件樹219
4.4.2 法則知識庫226
4.4.3 物件方法(Method)227
4.5 地理資訊模組234
4.5.1 地理資訊圖層物件樹234
4.5.2 空間地理資訊編輯與處理236
4.6 橋廊分析模組243
4.6.1 橋廊物件屬性243
4.6.2 標定橋梁起訖點與限制點245
4.6.3 橋廊分析246
4.6.4 產生可行橋帶249
4.7 橋帶空間資訊擷取模組250
4.7.1 選定橋帶250
4.7.2 橋帶空間資訊擷取之物件屬性251
4.7.3 直線橋帶空間資訊擷取253
4.7.4 曲線橋帶空間資訊擷取254
4.8 跨距配置演算模組256
4.8.1 跨距配置物件屬性與資料庫欄位256
4.8.2 跨距配置物件方法257
4.8.3 跨距配置結果範例259
4.9 結構單元配置模組264
4.10 落墩空間分析模組266
4.10.1 橋墩位置障礙物檢核子模組267
4.10.2 適用基礎型式地質檢核子模組270
4.10.3 上部結構施工高度限制檢核子模組271
4.10.4 上部結構河道施工限制檢核子模組272
4.10.5 跨距長度/橋墩高度美學比例檢核子模組273
4.11 構件工法尺寸推理模組275
4.11.1 設定大梁型式與尺寸277
4.11.2 設定基礎型式與尺寸278
4.11.3 設定橋墩型式與尺寸279
4.11.4 設定橋台型式與尺寸283
4.12 成本工期估算模組284
4.12.1 上部結構成本工期估算284
4.12.2 橋台成本工期估算285
4.12.3 橋台基礎成本工期估算285
4.12.4 橋墩成本工期估算286
4.12.5 橋墩基礎成本工期估算287
4.12.6 總成本估算287
4.13 較佳方案評選模組290
4.14 可行方案報表模組292
4.14.1 公路路線設計規範推理程序報表292
4.14.2 公路路線設計規範推理因子結果報表293
4.14.3 選定橋帶設計規範檢核結果294
4.14.4 跨距配置方案詳細報表295
4.15 可行方案構件製圖模組296
4.15.1 公路橫斷面配置與尺寸明細296
4.15.2 橋梁縱斷面跨距配置明細297
4.15.3 橋梁橫斷面構件型式與尺寸明細299
4.15.4 橋台橫斷面構件型式與尺寸明細300
4.16參數設定模組302
4.16.1 一般參數設定302
4.16.2 跨距配置參數設定302
4.16.3 上部結構工法參數設定304
4.16.4 大梁尺寸參數設定307
4.16.5 基礎尺寸參數設定311
4.16.6 橋墩尺寸參數設定314
4.16.7 橋台尺寸參數設定320
4.16.8 公路路線設計規範編輯323
第五章 案例分析與驗證326
5.1 案例1:橋長480公尺之國道高速公路橋梁規劃案例分析326
5.1.1 等高線地形圖數化326
5.1.2 案例1公路路線設計條件輸入327
5.1.3案例1公路路線設計結果檢視330
5.1.4 案例1障礙物與地質層數化332
5.1.5 案例1橋梁起迄點輸入與橋廊分析334
5.1.6 案例1橋帶選定與橋帶設計規範檢核335
5.1.7 設定案例1橋梁自動規劃偏好339
5.1.8 案例1橋梁規劃分析結果342
5.2 案例2:橋長480公尺之國道高速公路橋梁規劃案例分析347
5.2.1 案例2橋梁跨距配置結果348
5.2.2 案例2橋梁前十名較佳方案彙整350
5.2.3 案例2橋梁較佳方案跨距配置與結構斷面圖352
5.3 案例3:橋長820公尺之省道主要幹道橋梁規劃案例分析355
5.3.1 案例3公路路線設計結果356
5.3.2 案例3橋梁跨距配置結果360
5.3.3 案例3橋梁前十名較佳方案彙整365
5.3.4 案例3橋梁較佳方案跨距配置與結構斷面圖366
5.4 系統功能與分析結果驗證374
第六章 結論與建議377
6.1 研究結論377
6.1.1 土木工程為經驗導向之行業378
6.1.2 工程設施生命週期與空間緊密關連378
6.1.3 橋梁規劃階段涉及主題繁多複雜379
6.1.4 專家系統在橋梁自動規劃系統之貢獻380
6.1.5 空間分析技術在橋梁自動規劃系統之貢獻382
6.1.6 電腦整合技術在土木工程應用上之成效384
6.2 研究貢獻385
6.2.1 學術研究385
6.2.2 工程實務388
6.3 研究限制390
6.3.1 橋梁工法390
6.3.2 施工材料391
6.3.3 資料準備391
6.4 未來研究方向與建議391
6.4.1應用於其他土木工程類門391
6.4.2 擴充非公路橋梁設計規範與空間分析方法392
6.4.3 採用多樣性方案評估方法392
6.4.3 建構生命週期導向橋梁管理系統392
參考文獻394
英文部份394
中文部份402
附錄A-1 推理決定最大超高值emaxi
附錄A-2 推理決定正常路拱值NCvi
附錄A-3 推理決定公路是否設置路肩viii
附錄A-4 推理決定中央分隔帶寬度ix
附錄A-5 推理決定機慢車道寬度x
附錄A-6 推理決定人行道寬度xi
附錄A-7推理決定路肩寬度xii
附錄A-8 推理決定每車道寬度xv
附錄B 公路路線幾何設計模組物件方法(Method)xx
附錄C 案例1公路路線幾何設計模組推理結果(取自ABPS輸出報表)xxxii
附錄D 案例2前十名較佳方案彙整報表(取自ABPS輸出報表)xxxvii
附錄E 案例2第一較佳方案詳細報表(取自ABPS輸出報表)xlviii
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指導教授 姚乃嘉(Nie-Jia Yau) 審核日期 2002-1-14
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