博碩士論文 83346005 詳細資訊




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姓名 廖寶玫(Pao-Mei Liao)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 淨水程序中添加高分子凝聚劑對混凝與加氯處理效應之研究
(The Behavior of Organic Polymers on Coagulation and Chlorination Processes during Drinking Water Purification)
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摘要(中) 為提升處理效率,合成有機高分子凝聚劑在自來水淨水程序中之使用日益普遍,主要作為混凝時之助凝劑,以提高水中懸浮性顆粒之去除率。但是由於高分子聚合物本身的不純物及其可能的反應性,使得其安全性仍受到相當程度之質疑。本研究之目的即為探討高分子凝聚劑應用於自來水處理程序中時之行為變化與影響因子。以三種不同特性之黏土顆粒(高嶺土、鈣-蒙特土、伊萊石)模擬原水中之濁度來源,並選取國內常用之陰離子性、陽離子性與非離子性等高分子凝聚劑,在實驗室中模擬自來水之混凝、加氯程序,以了解其在飲用水處理程序中可能產生之效應,同時並探討其與原水中有機污染物間之交互行為。結果指出,高分子凝聚劑在混凝程序中會吸附至黏土表面,形成高分子凝聚劑/黏土凝聚複合物,改變黏土之表面特性,除可產生凝聚、沈降作用,提升膠體顆粒之去除效果外;同時可經由分佈作用吸附水中非離子性疏水有機化合物,而達到與濁度一併去除之效果。但在超過最佳劑量後,由於顆粒的再穩定化與過剩溶解性高分子凝聚劑之增溶作用,濁度與非離子性疏水有機污染物之去除效率均會降低。研究中同時發現,構成濁度之黏土表面具有催化特性,可促進高分子凝聚劑之氯化作用,導致加氯副產物大量生成。黏土之催化特性與其表面帶有之金屬陽離子種類相關,具較高價數之過渡金屬具有較強之催化能力,研究中採用黏土之催化能力大小依序為鈦-蒙特土>鐵-蒙特土>銅-蒙特土>錳-蒙特土>鈣-蒙特土>鈉-蒙特土。形成之加氯副產物以鹵化甲烷類與芳香族為主,產量較大者包括氯仿、二氯甲烷、苯和甲苯等。添加兩種配位基於系統中後發現,由於黏土表面之金屬陽離子與配位基結合形成錯合物,催化效果受到明顯的抑制。
摘要(英) Synthetic organic polymers used to purify drinking water are severely limited in that their impurities and by-products harm human health. In this study, the behavior of organic polymer in drinking water purification processes was investigated. In the simulated drinking water purification processes, three kinds of commercial synthetic organic polymers were used as coagulant aids, and pure clays were used as the suspended solids sources. Experimental results indicated that adding organic polymers to the coagulation systems resulted in more extensive remove of nonionic organic compounds (NOCs) and turbidity. In coagulation and flocculation processes, the formation of clay/polymer complexes can facilitate the removal of NOCs in contaminated water. But when added polymer exceeded an optimum-dosage, the restabilization and solubility-enhancement decreased the removal rates of particles and NOCs. On the other hand, the suspended solids, which are composed of natural clays, could possibly provided a powerful reactive medium in which the reactions between adsorbed polymers and disinfectants (chlorine) could occur. The catalysis ability was influenced by the characteristics of clay surface, clays with transition metal catalyzed the reactions between the organic polymer coagulants and disinfectants (chlorine), and then formed a larger number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than those with non-transition metals. The major formatted products included halogenated methanes and aromatic compounds. The total formation potential of DBPs was depending upon the electron donated by the clay, very little is related for the BET surface area, following the order : Ti-montmorillonite > Fe-montmorillonite > Cu-montmorillonite > Mn-montmorillonite > Ca-montmorillonite > Na-montmorillonite > Talc. The source of exchangeable ion also played an important role on the catalytic ability of clay. When a strong chelating agent such as o-phenanthrolin or ethlenediamine was added, the formation of VOCs was strongly inhibited, demonstrating the important function of transition metal on the clay.
關鍵字(中) ★ 高分子凝聚劑
★ 混凝作用
★ 氯化作用
★ 氯化副產物
★ 揮發性有機物
★ 黏土表面催化反應
★ 過渡金屬
關鍵字(英) ★ organic polymer
★ coagulation
★ chlorination
★ DBPs
★ VOCs
★ catalysis
★ transition-metal
論文目次 封面
摘要
ABSTRACT
目錄
圖目錄
表目錄
第一章 前言
1-1 研究緣起
1-2 研究目的與內容
第二章 文獻回顧
2-1 高分子凝聚劑
2-2 氯化反應
2-3 土壤與有機污染物之作用
2-4 黏土表面化學反應
第三章 實驗設備、材料與方法
3-1 實驗架構及流程
3-2 實驗材料及方法
第四章 結果與討論 I -- 高分子凝聚劑在自來水處理程序中之行為
4-1 化學混凝
4-2 高分子凝聚劑與水中有機物之交互作用
4-3 高分子凝聚劑氯化反應之副產物
4-4 高分子凝聚劑於混凝程序中之行為
第五章 結果與討論 II -- 黏土表面表面催化之氯化作用
5-1 土樣基本性質
5-2 不同表面特性黏土之氯化副產物生成總量
5-3 不同表面特性黏土催化之氯化副產物物種
5-4 高分子凝聚劑型態對氯化反應之影響
5-5 仰制劑添加對黏土氯化反應之影響
第六章 結論與建議
6-1 結論
6-2 建議
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指導教授 李俊福(Jiunn-Fwu Lee) 審核日期 2000-7-18
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