博碩士論文 84342007 詳細資訊


姓名 饒見有(Jiann-Yeou Rau)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 建築物幾何模塑及其於航照影像正射化之應用
(Geometrical Building Modeling and Its Application to the Ortho-Rectification for Aerial Images)
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摘要(中) 有鑑於三維城市模型的重要性以及大量的需求,有必要建立一套有效的建築物幾何模塑解決方案。著眼於實用的角度,本文提出一基於半自動化策略進行建築物幾何模塑(Geometrical Modeling)之交談式系統,並且提出一基於完全自動化策略進行影像正射化(Ortho Rectification)之程序,將前者所產生之建築物三維模型應用於都會區真實正射影像(True-Orthophoto)之製程上。
本研究利用人工量測可視之屋緣線段,或者利用現有數值航測製圖所產生的都會區建築物資料,以最少的人力需求來建立三維城市模型。主要核心技術稱為「分割-合併-成形」(Split-Merge-Shape, SMS)演算法。其中「分割-合併」兩步驟主要在重建屋緣線段之間的拓樸關係,以完成封閉多邊形。而「成形」步驟則是利用屋緣之高度資訊,來判定屋頂面為平面或斜面。利用本技術可將傳統數值航測製圖與三維城市模型之製作程序結合,以提昇效率與成果之品質。
在傳統航空像片正射化的過程中,通常僅利用地形高度進行正射糾正,也就是說並未對建築物進行高差移位修正,同時也未對被遮蔽區進行資訊補償,加上建築物所造成之陰影效應,嚴重影響到成果之可用性與正確性。為了有效回復建築物之正確位置以及被遮蔽區與陰影區之資訊,本文提出一自動化程序,利用SMS所產生之多面體房屋模型、多重疊航空像片、數值地形模型與太陽方位等資訊,來進行真實正射影像糾正。同時將建築物高差移位修正、遮蔽區資訊補償、補償區邊緣勻化以及陰影區影像增顯等步驟合而為一,以提昇正射影像之品質。
文中首先對相關文獻在建築物幾何模塑,以及影像正射化方面做一全面性探討。而在建築物幾何模塑方面,針對所提出之SMS技術在邏輯上之建全性、處理效率、成果之準確度等方面,進行量化分析。並將所產生之三維建築物資料,配合數值地形模型,應用在真實正射影像之製作、都市三維景觀模擬以及三維地理資訊系統之查詢上,以展現SMS技術之實用性。
摘要(英) Due to the huge demand and the importance of 3-D city models, an effective solution for geometrical building modeling is indispensable. From the application point of view, an interactive system for geometrical building modeling based on a semi-automatic approach is presented. A true-orthophoto rectification scheme based on the generated building models is also proposed.
The data used in the proposed system are 3-D visible roof-edges that have been manually measured from a stereo-model, or the 3-D building outlines from a digital topographic map. The core technology is called the "Split-Merge-Shape" (SMS) method. The SPLIT and MERGE steps are the two main procedures for topology reconstruction from non-related roof-edges. The SHAPE step uses the available roof-edge height information to define an appropriate rooftop. With the SMS method, the topographic mapping of buildings, and geometric building modeling, can be seamlessly integrated into a unified procedure.
In a conventional ortho-rectification procedure using a digital terrain model, the correction of relief displacement due to buildings is not considered. Accordingly, any information hidden by buildings or in their shadow is not restored. In order to restore the most complete information and to correct the relief displacement of buildings, a rigorous true-orthophoto rectification scheme is proposed. In the proposed scheme, 3-D building models, multi-view aerial images, digital terrain models, and the sun’’s orientation are all utilized. Terrain and building relief displacement corrections as well as hidden area compensation, seamless mosaicking, and shadowed area enhancement are integrated into one procedure.
This thesis starts with an overview of state-of-the-art technologies on the subject of building modeling and orthoimage rectification. Then, the SMS method is presented, including an evaluation of its feasibility, robustness, efficiency and accuracy. Finally, the generated building models are applied to true-orthophoto generation, 3-D city landscape simulation, and 3-D GIS querying. The applicability of the SMS method is thus demonstrated.
關鍵字(中) ★ 三維城市模型
★ 分割合併成形
★ 正射影像
關鍵字(英) ★ 3-D City Model
★ Split-Merge-Shape
★ Orthophoto
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
摘要I
ABSTRACTII
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSIII
TABLE OF CONTENTSIV
LIST OF TABLESVII
LIST OF FIGURESVIII
1. INTRODUCTION1
1.1.Related Work on 3-D Building Model Generation5
1.1.1.Types of Building Models7
1.1.2.Automatic vs. Semi-Automatic Approaches10
1.1.3.Bottom-Up, Top-Down and Hybrid14
1.1.4.DSM, Points vs. Lines15
1.1.5.The Proposed Scheme17
1.1.5.1.The Generated Building Models18
1.1.5.2.Automation Phase19
1.1.5.3.Human Intervention19
1.2.Related Work on Ortho-Rectification19
1.2.1.Image Occlusion20
1.2.2.Data Merging20
1.2.3.Shadow Enhancement21
1.2.4.The Proposed Scheme21
1.3.Organization of the Thesis22
2. THE SPLIT-MERGE-SHAPE METHOD23
2.1.Initial Building Model24
2.2.Pre-Processing25
2.2.1.Collinear Processing26
2.2.2.Orthogonal Processing26
2.2.3.Dangle Removal27
2.2.4.Dangle Snapping27
2.3.SPLIT30
2.4.MERGE30
2.5.SHAPE32
3. GENERATION OF POLYHEDRAL MODELS38
3.1.GUI Interface of the SMS System38
3.2.Parameter Setup in the SMS System39
3.3.Human Intervention41
3.3.1.Failures Treatment42
3.3.2.Post-Processing Functions46
3.4.Line-Segments from Visible Roof-Edges48
3.4.1.Case I49
3.4.1.1.Robustness Evaluation49
3.4.1.2.Efficiency Estimation50
3.4.1.3.Accuracy Evaluation52
3.4.2.Case II55
3.5.Line-Segments from Urban Topographic Map57
3.6.Summary61
3.6.1.Advantages61
3.6.2.Limitations63
4. GENERATION OF PRISMATIC MODELS64
4.1.Select, Fuse and Shape64
4.2.Case Study67
4.3.3-D GIS Application67
4.4.Summary69
5. ORTHOIMAGE RECTIFICATION FOR BUILT-UP AREAS70
5.1.Data Acquisition and Orientation Modeling70
5.2.Ortho Rectification71
5.3.The Proposed Scheme72
5.3.1.Image-Object Reprojection72
5.3.2.Hidden Area Detection73
5.3.3.Seamless Mosaicking74
5.3.4.Shadow Treatment77
5.4.Case Study79
5.5.Performance Evaluation79
5.5.1.Ortho-Rectification Using DTM80
5.5.2.True Ortho-Rectification from a Quadruplet84
5.5.3.Assessment of Geometric Quality85
5.5.4.Assessment of Radiometric Quality88
5.6.Application to Flight Simulation88
5.7.Summary91
6. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK92
REFERENCES96
CURRICULUM VITAE104
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指導教授 陳良健(Liang-Chien Chen) 審核日期 2002-1-15
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