博碩士論文 85244005 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:6 、訪客IP:3.237.94.109
姓名 陳榮裕(Rong-Yuh Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 地球物理研究所
論文名稱 探討地震發震構造之辨識與分布:以集集地震序列為例
(A study of the earthquakes constructed by the rupture plane and relocation distribution: Regard Chi-Chi earthquake sequence as the example)
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摘要(中) 在探討地震發震模式時,也必須同時了解地震斷層構造;不了解地震斷層破裂構造,就無法了解地震發震及孕震機制。
研究地殼地震斷層破裂構造主要有下列幾種方法:(一)地表斷層破裂構造:然而,一般地震發震多屬於盲斷層,很少會破裂至地表,再加上地表沉積構造會覆蓋陳舊之斷層構造,且斷層活動與否更難確定,所以僅做比對用途。(二)地球物理方法探勘:一般採用淺層震測或是地電探測法,甚至是鑽探法,而這些方法均無法深究到地震發震深度。(三)地震序列分布:經由地震定位後之地震序列走向分布,大致上可以做為判別地震斷層帶之幾何分布走向。(四)地震震源機制解:地震發震模式。因此,研究地震斷層破裂構造時後兩種方法是值得研究與運用,但是地震定位精準與否、地震序列分布是否明顯、以及斷層破裂面之選定均會影響結果之判定。
由於台灣地體構造複雜,無法全由地表破裂斷層、地震序列分布走向或是雙力偶之震源機制解判斷,因此,本研究藉由以下三點探討地震破裂模式:(一)最大交點法(MAXI)之三維速度構造重新定位,將地震震源位置精確且合理定出;(二)震源位置疊合法,以統計法則調整震源位置,由餘震震源位置聚合分布幾何特性,求取可能對應之斷層滑移面;(三)近場強震有限緯度震源法決定地震破裂面等三種方法運算,不但地震定位將地震序列正確展現,加上震源機制解之地震斷層面辨別研究,再佐以已知地表斷層分布位置,藉此展現既精準且正確之地震發震構造的分布與特徵。大體而言,重定後的地震序列分布與震源機制破裂面大致上呈現一致的特性,除了地震序列分布不明顯地區或是構造轉換處,近場有限維度震源法決定地震震源破裂面提供絕佳判別發震構造之特性。
台灣現代地震網高密度、高品質的觀測儀器,紀錄到1999年9月21日集集主震及其餘震序列完整且大量高品質之地震資料,提供本研究絕佳機會探討地震發震構造之辨識與分布,進而了解台灣中部地區之震源特性及破裂構造。
本研究將集集大地震序列依空間分布劃分六大區域並得到以下結果:(一)集集主震及其東部序列主要有共軛破裂面構造及深部基底滑脫面構造,另外淺部上盤也出現背向逆衝斷層構造;(二)集集主震引發車籠埔斷層破裂,且帶動斷層南北兩端轉形滑移斷層破裂構造。北端受到原三義-埔里轉形帶之阻擋,所以只能由淺部(15km以上)越過,並形成書疊式橫移斷層及伸張變形地震密集區;(三)受到北港高區阻擋作用,地震序列沿梅山斷層走向滑移至嘉義地區,並引發一系列向西傾斜破裂之斷層;(四)集集主震東邊深部基底滑脫向西逆衝或是共軛破裂面向上抬升,造成中央山脈下淺部地殼側向應力釋放造成伸張作用,並引發高角度正斷層;由於中央山脈側向應力釋放,原本東南-西北向之板塊應力,只剩下向北之分量,因而造成中央山脈與縱谷間產生東南傾角逆斷層破裂。
最後本研究更利用有限維度震源法之原理排除點源構造特性,將台灣地區歷史地震之地震震源特性及地震矩網格化後,發現集集地震位在最低地震矩發震區。
摘要(英) Because the tectonic is complicated in Taiwan, it is unable to determine the rupture fault by surface broken, earthquakes sequence distribution, or the double couple of focal mechanism. This studying probes into the earthquake rupture mechanism and seismogenic by following methods: (1) The maximum intersection method(MAXI) by three-dimensional velocity structure relocation. It is accurately relocated the position of earthquakes hypocenter and depth; (2) The hypocenter collapsing algorithm is applied for statistics theory; that is collapsed the earthquake sequence distributed which is showed the characteristic of geometry, and corresponding the rupture plane of earthquakes; (3) The finite dimension source method(FDSM) is applied for near source of strong motion data to separate rupture plane or nodal plane.
The CWB seismic network (CWBSN) currently includes 70 weak motion and 86 strong motion real time stations, and 685 free-field strong motion stations. In the past ten years, a large amount digital waveforms were recorded by the CWBSN. It offers a rich data set for seismological study. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan represented the island’’s largest inland seismic event of the last century. Abundant high-resolution digital seismic data were recorded by CWBSN that offered good simple to this study. In the study we relocated 83179 events and collapsed the hypocenter distribution. There are 74 medium-and-large-sized events was accurately to determine the rupture plane. We divided the Chi-Chi earthquake sequence into six areas. The results in the study suggest that the distribution of the relocated earthquakes generally agree with the rupture plane from FDSM.
Finally, we applied finite dimension source method to replace the point source and calculate seismic moment distribution in Taiwan. Focal mechanism and moment are distributed by the grid subevents. The result obtains particularity true situation about focal mechanism and moment. We compared with the moment distribution of the historical earthquake in Taiwan it happened before the Chi-Chi earthquake sequence, and we found that Chi-Chi earthquake sequence took place the low moment area.
關鍵字(中) ★ 最大交點法
★ 地震破裂面
★ 震源位置疊合法
★ 中央地震矩張量解
★ 有限維度震源法
★ 地震矩
★ 集集地震序列
★ 車籠埔斷層
關鍵字(英) ★ Maximum intersection method
★ MAXI
★ Hypocenter collapsing algorithm
★ Seismic moment
★ CMT
★ rupture plane
★ FDSM
★ Finite dimension source method
論文目次 摘要..……………………………………………………………………...…I
誌謝………………………………………………………………………...V
目錄…………………………………………………..……...…………..…VI
圖目………………………………………………………………...IX
表目……………………………………………………………...…….XV
符號說明………………………………………..………………...XVI
第一章 緒論…….....…………………………………………………...…...1
1.1 研究動機.…………………………………………………………..1
1.2 研究範圍.…………………………………………………………..5
1.3 文獻回顧.…………………………………………………………..8
1.4 內文簡介.…………………………………………………………..8
第二章 研究方法..………..…………………………………….……...11
2.1 概論……….……………………………………………………11
2.2 地震三維速度定位…………………….………………………12
2.2.1 「主站法」之原理………………..………………………14
2.2.2 「初步震源位置」之決定……………………………..…17
2.2.3 「最後震源位置」之決定………………………………..20
2.2.4 「最大交點」三維速度構造定位法之改進法………………20
2.3 震源位置疊合法--『雲中尋雁蹤』…………………………..25
2.3.1 方法………………………………………………………..25
2.3.2 實際資料驗證及測試……………………………………..29
2.4 有限維度震源法之原理……………………………………….33
2.4.1 方法…...…………………………………………………...33
2.4.2 地震破裂模型…………………………...………………...34
2.4.3 波形誤差計算(合成地震波形與觀測波形比較)…………...38
2.4.4 實際資料驗證及測試………………………………………..39
2.5 地震震源機制解網格分區及地震矩有限維度震源化………….52
第三章 資料收集及分析………………………………………….............55
3.1 三維速度構造重新定位………………………….……………....55
3.1.1 短週期地震定位資料收集..…………………….…………...55
3.1.2 三維速度構造模型控制分析………………….…………….58
3.1.3 「初步震源位置」之決定能力………………….………….58
3.1.4 「最後震源位置」之決定能力………………….………….58
3.1.5 實際資料測試…………………………………….………….60
3.1.6 資料分析…………………………………...….……………..71
3.2 震源位置疊合法--『雲中尋雁蹤』………....….……………71
3.3 近場有限維度震源法………………………………….……...….78
3.3.1 資料收集--震源機制解與近場強震資料……….……….78
3.3.2 資料分析……………………………………….………...…..84
3.4 地震震源機制解網格分區及地震矩有限維度震源化.….…...…88
3.4.1 地震震源機制解網格分區………...………………..……….88
3.4.2 地震矩有限維度震源分布…………………………………106
第四章 結果與討論……………………………………………………...113
4.1 【A區】— 集集主震附近及其東部序列...…………………….113
※【共軛破裂面構造】………………………………………122
※【深部基盤滑脫面構造】…………………………………126
4.2 【B區】—集集主震東南部序列……...………………………...128
4.3 【C區】—集集主震東北方地震密集帶………………………..134
4.4 【D區】—集集主震西南部序列(北港高區南緣地震序
列)……………………………………...…………...137
4.5 【E區】—集集主震西部序列(車籠埔斷層下盤區)...………….141
4.6 【F區】—台灣東部中央山脈地震………...…………………...150
4.7 地震序列發震順序及特性……………………………………...156
第五章 結論……………………………………………………………...165
參考文獻………………………………………………………………….167
附錄A 1898~1988年台灣災害地震目錄……………………………….179
附錄B 近場強震有限維度震源法測試--『瑞里地震』……...………185
附錄C 近場強震有限維度震源法測試--『佳里地震序列』…...……197
附錄D 近場強震有限維度震源法--『集集地震序列』……………..203
英文摘要………………………………………………………………….269
作者簡介………………………………………………………………….271
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指導教授 蔡義本、高弘
(Yi-Ben Tsai、Honn Kao)
審核日期 2005-7-19
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