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姓名 王潔( Jie Wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 藝術學研究所
論文名稱 馬格利特的文字畫(1927-1930)及其作品之辯證性結構研究
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摘要(中) 我們認為他的超現實風格來自於他對「現實」的體悟與思考。這些思考可以從
他的「文字畫」作品中看出端倪,1927 年至1930 年的「文字畫」作品,正是
馬格利特對於「現實」以及「代表現實之符號」之關係的探究與實驗,這個階
段也是他奠定個人風格的重要時期,解析這批文字畫,有助於我們認識馬格利
特超現實風格的特色,尤其是他對「現實」的思考。因此,本論文選定「馬格
利特的文字畫」作為研究主題。
目前學界對馬格利特「文字畫」的研究,正方興未艾,並無定論,我們試
圖將有關馬格利特文字畫的相關問題並列在一起來思考,並提出「辯證性結構」
(dialectic structure)這一觀點,作為理解馬格利特超現實風格的入口。本論文
主要的內容包含「馬格利特文字畫的起源」、「馬格利特文字畫的解讀」以及「馬
格利特文字畫與非文字畫之間的關係」。這三個主題環環相扣,它們都與「辯證
性結構」此一特徵有關。
1927 年以前,馬格利特就對繪畫之「標題文字」與「圖像」之間、「繪畫
空間」與「真實空間」之間的辯證感興趣。1927 年在巴黎,文字正式走入他的
畫中,他開始有系統地研究「現實」與「代表現實的兩種符號(文字與圖像)」
之間的關係。他的文字畫具有共同的形式,亦即本論文提出的「辯證性結構」
這一特徵。而有關「辯證性結構」的分析,便是本論文的核心內容。1930 年,
當馬格利特離開巴黎並終止文字畫系列實驗時,文字畫中普遍存在的「辯證性
結構」卻並未消失,經過轉換,「辯證性結構」仍保留在他的非文字畫作品中,
成為他個人超現實風格的一大特色。
本論文以「文字畫」出發,「非文字畫」終結,貫穿其間的,則是「辯證性
結構」。文末,我們將從「辯證性結構」這一特徵歸結馬格利特超現實風格的獨
特性:應用「辯證性結構」,馬格利特揭露了現實界的神祕與詩意;「辯證性結
構」讓馬格利特的圖畫中同時保有傳統與創新;而「辯證性結構」的基礎在於
馬格利特對「符號之多義性」的應用與開拓,利用「符號之多義性」,馬格利特
讓符號「自我辯證」,「符號之自我辯證」,便是馬格利特的圖畫顯得幽默、諷刺
並能引發觀者多元聯想與詮釋的重要原因。
摘要(英) surrealistic style, as will become evident in this thesis, derives precisely from his
conception and reflection of "the real". To outline Magritte’’s thinking of the real, his
"word paintings"(1927-1930)can be useful information. These "word paintings"
are visible results of his study and experiment on the relationship between "the real"
and "the signs representing the real." Besides, the "word painting" stage is an
important period for Magritte to develop his personal style. Consequently, analyzing
and interpreting Magritte’’s "word painting" is contributive to the recognition of the
characteristics of his surrealistic style. I therefor choose "Magritte’’s word paintings"
as the subject of this thesis.
Studies about "Magritte’’s word paintings" are still growing in the academic circle
and there are few accepted opinions about these works. In this thesis, I try to approach
them in different ways. By juxtaposing and considering simultaneously the questions
relevant to "Magritte’’s word paintings", I will introduce a new perspective for
understanding Magritte’s surrealistic style : "the dialectic structure." The questions
discussed here include "how and why Magritte’’s word paintings appear" , "the
interpretation of Magritte’’s word paintings" , and "the relationship between
Magritte’’s word paintings and his non-word paintings". These three questions are
relevant to one another, and they all involve the character of "the dialectic
structure."
Before 1927, Magritte has been interested in the relationship between "the titles
and the images" as well as the relationship between "the illusionistic spaces and the
real spaces". In Paris, 1927, words begin entering into his paintings. From then on, he
starts to study systematically the relationship between "the real" and "the signs
representing the real". These "word paintings" possess a common form, which can be
regarded as "the universal character of Magritte’’s word paintings," i.e., "the dialectic
structure." When Magritte stops the regular word painting experiments and leaves
Paris in 1930, "the dialectic structure" can still be found, though has been
transformed, in his paintings. "The dialectic structure" has become a noticeable
characteristic of his personal surrealistic styles.
In this thesis, beginning with "word paintings" and terminating with "non-word
paintings", "the dialectic structure" behaves as the axial threads running through the
whole chapters. Finally, I will summarize the uniqueness of Magritte’’s surrealistic
style as follow:the application of "the dialectic structure" enables him to reveal "le
mystere" and "la poesie" of the real. It also enables the coexistence of the elements of
"tradition" and "innovation" in his paintings. "The dialectic structure" bases on
Magritte’’s employment and development of "the polysemy and ambiguity of the
signs". Due to "the polysemy and ambiguity", the signs in Magritte’’s paintings can be
self-dialectic. The "self-dialectic sign" is a main factor that helps to form a humourous
and ironic atmosphere in his paintings, as well as attracts the spectators to produce
diverse imaginations and interpretations of his paintings.
論文目次 中文提要
Abstract
誌謝辭
凡例
圖目
馬格利特像
導論﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍ 1
一、 研究動機 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍1
二、 研究目的 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍3
三、研究範圍 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍3
四、研究方法與參考資料 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍8
第一章、馬格利特文字畫之起源與分類 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍9
第一節、馬格利特文字畫之起源與早期圖文關係實驗﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍10
一、《以一朵玫瑰花取代心的女人/在心臟位置有一朵玫瑰花的女人》 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍13
二、《夜曲/夜景畫》 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍17
第二節、學者對馬格利特文字畫的分類與提示 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍21
一、David Sylvester 的分類:馬格利特對「再現」問題的探討 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍21
二、Frederik Leen 的分類:馬格利特對「文字」的選用 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍32
第二章、馬格利特文字畫中的辯證性結構 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍36
第一節、文字畫中「文字名詞與圖像」之辯證 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍37
一、辯證性結構分析:《活的痕跡》《迅速的希望》《藍色體》《幽靈幻影》 ﹍﹍﹍﹍38
二、《夢之鑰》:破除符號固定連結,開展圖畫多元意義 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍47
三、《幽靈般的風景》:即刻的震撼力與隱藏的辯證性 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍56
第二節、文字畫中「文句否定命題與圖像」之辯證 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍63
一、震撼性詩意效果與馬格利特對語言的思考 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍63
二、《圖像的背叛》與馬格利特對語言的思考 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍67
第三節、"Les Mots et Les Images"(〈文字與圖像〉)對文字畫的解釋 ﹍﹍﹍71
一、〈文字與圖像〉命題形式分析一:全稱、偏稱命題與文字畫之共性殊性 ﹍﹍74
二、〈文字與圖像〉命題形式分析二:馬格利特對「物體、名稱、圖像」之思考與
回答 ﹍﹍﹍﹍78
三、〈文字與圖像〉命題形式分析三:圖文間的辯證 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍81
小 結 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍87
第三章、馬格利特非文字畫中的辯證性結構 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍ 91
第一節、標題塑造圖畫之辯證性﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍92
一、標題全部指涉圖畫,完全參與圖畫辯證意義之塑造 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍94
二、標題部份指涉圖畫,部份參與圖畫辯證意義之塑造 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍98
第二節、圖像塑造圖畫之辯證性 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍104
一、一圖像包含兩種矛盾之屬性 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍106
二、兩個屬性矛盾圖像之結合 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍109
結 論 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍118
文字畫的成因 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍119
"Les Mots et Les Images"(〈文字與圖像〉)對文字畫的解釋 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍120
文字畫的特徵及其與非文字畫的關係:「辯證性結構」﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍121
「辯證性結構」的重要意義 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍121
後 記 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍125
文字畫圖版 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍126
參考書目 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍148
附錄:
附錄一、馬格利特半生年表(1898-1934) ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍154
附錄二、(之一)〈文字與圖像〉手稿 ﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍157
(之二)馬格利特1937 年於倫敦演講之打字稿﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍﹍158
參考文獻 馬格利特的書信與文字
Magritte, Rene., Ecrits Complets, ed. by Andre Blavier,(Paris, Flammarion, 1979)
Magritte/Torczyner:Letters between friends, translation from the French by Richard
Miller,(NY:Harry N. Abrams, 1994)
Torczyner, Rene Magritte:Signes et Images,(Paris:Draeger, 1982)
馬格利特作品全目錄
Rene Magritte Catalogue Raisonne 1 : Oil painting, 1916-1930, ed. by
SYLVESTER, David. & WHITFIELD, Sarah. ( London: Menil
Foundation and Philip Wilson, 1992).
Rene Magritte Catalogue Raisonne 2:Oil painting and object ,1931-1948, ed. by
SYLVESTER, David. & WHITFIELD, Sarah. ( London: Menil
Foundation and Philip Wilson, 1993).
Rene Magritte Catalogue Raisonne 3:Oil painting, object and Bronzes, 1949-1967,
ed. by SYLVESTER, David. & WHITFIELD, Sarah. (London:Menil
Foundation and Philip Wilson, 1993).
Rene Magritte Catalogue Raisonne 4:Gouaches, Temperas,Watercolours and
Papiers Colles 1918-1967, ed. by SYLVESTER, David. &
WHITFIELD, Sarah.(London:Menil Foundation and Philip Wilson,
1994).
論「馬格利特」相關書目
CALVOCORESSI, Richard., Magritte ,(Oxford:Phaidon, 1984)
FOUCAULT, Michel., This Is Not A Pipe, trans. by James Harkness. (Berkerly:
University of California Press, 1983.)
GABLIK, Suzi. Magritte , (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1985)
GIMFERRER, Pere., Magritte, trens. by Kenneth Lyons,(NY:Rizzoli, 1987)
HAMMACHER, A. M., Magritte, trans. by James Brockway, (London:Thames
and Hudson, 1986)
JOEMETS, Micheline., Rene Magritte:A Critique of Reification,(Canada:
149
Universuty Laval, MA Dissertation, 1991)
Magritte:Centenary Exhibition, ed. by OLLINGER-ZINQUE, Gisele and LEEN,
Frederik.,(Bruxelles :Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium,
1998)
MEURIS, Jacques., Magritte, Eng. trens. by Michael Sscuffil,(Koln: Benedikt
Taschen, 1994)
MEURIS , Jacques., Magritte et les Mysteres de la Pensee,(Bruxelles, 1992)
MARCEL, M., Apologies de Magritte 1938-1993, (Bruxelles:Dider Devillez Editeur,
1994)
NOEL Bernard., Magritte,(P.O.L editeur, 1998)
NOEL, Bernard.,Magritte,(Paris: Flammarion ,1977)
NOEL, Bernard.,Magritte, trans. by Jeffrey Arsham,(N.Y.:Bonfini, 1977)
ORBAN, Clara Elizabeth.,Words and Images: The Semiotics of Futurism and
Surrealism.(Chicago: University Of Chicago, PHD Dissertation,
1990.)
PALMER Michael., From Ensor to Magritte:Belgian Art 1880-1940 , (Brussels:,
1994)
PAQUET, Marcel., Rene Magritte1898-1967:Thought rendered visible, Eng. trans.
By M. Claridge Bamberg,(Koln: Benedikt Taschen, 1994)
PERGNIER, Maurice., Du Semantique au Poetique avec Baudelaire, Cocteau,
Magritte,(Paris:L'Harmattan, 1997)
Rene Magritte, exh. cat. by C.Goemans and E. L.T. Mesens, (Paris:Lausanne, Fond.
Hermitage, 1987)
Rene Magritte and the Contemporary Art:An Influence of ideas and information
or the puzzle never solved, (Oostende:Museum voor Moderne
Kunst,1998)
Secret affinities: words and images. Houston, (Tex.:Institute for the Arts, Rice
University, 1976)
SPITZ, Ellen Handler, Museums of The Mind:Magritte's Labyrinth and Other
Essays in the Arts, (Yale University Press:New Haven and London,
1994)
SYLVESTER, David., Magritte,(Antwerp:Mercatorfonds,1992)
簡瑞碧,《傅柯與馬格利特符號理論研究》(Michel Foucault's Theory of Signs in
Relation to the Works of Rene Magritte),清華大學外國語文學系
碩士論文,1997
《馬格利特》,GABLIK, Suzi.原著,項幼蓉譯,(台北:遠流,1998)
《馬格利特》,許麗雯總編,巨匠美術週刊,(台北:錦繡,1992)
150
超現實主義書目
BALAKIAN, Anna Elizabeth., Surrealism:the road to the absolute,(Chicago:The
University of Chicago Press, 1986)
FER, Briony.,BATCHELOR, David.,WOOD, Paul., Modern Art Practices and
Debates:Realism, Rationalism, Surrealism, Art between the Wars,
(Yale University Press:New Haven and London, 1993)
FREEMAN, Judi and John C. Welchman. The Dada & Surrealist word-Image.
(Cambridge:MIT, 1989)
DUROZOI, Gerard.,Histoire du Mouvement Surrealiste ,(Paris:Hazan, 1997)
GALE, Matthew., Dada & Surrealism, (Lodon:Phaidon, 1997)
HUBERT, Renee Riese., Surrealism and The Book , (University of California Press,
1988)
NADEAU, Maurice., The History of Serrealism, trans. by Richard Howard,( The
Belknap press of Harvard University Press,1989)
SPECTOR, Jack J.Surrealist Art and Writing 1919-39.(NY: Cambridge UP, 1997.)
期刊論文
CARANI, Marie.,“La perspective de Magritte.” Degres: Revue De Synthese A
Orientation Semiologique: Magritte II 89-90 , 1997: D1-D31 .
CORNU, Genevieve.,“Les mondes virtuels et les tableaux de Magritte.”Degres:
Revue De Synthese A Orientation Semiologique: Magritte II 89-90 ,
1997: C1-C27.
DURHAM, Scott.,"From Magritte to Klossowski:The Simulacrum, between painting
and narrative ",October, no. 64, Spring, 1993, pp16-33.
FREEMAN, Judi. , “Layers of Meaning: The Multiple Readings of Dada and
Surrealist Word-Images”, The Dada & Surrealist word-Image.
(Cambridge:MIT, 1989. , pp. 13-56)
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the Surrealist Publications", The Oxford Art Journal, 15:2, 1992,
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其他藝術史或理論書籍
Art in Theory 1900-1990:An Anthology of Changing Ideas,ed. By Charles
Harrisson & Paul Wood,(1994)
ALPERS, Svetlana, The Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeentb Century,
(London:Murray, 1983)
BARTHES, Roland, Image Music Text, trans. by Stephen Heath, (London: Fontana,
1977)
BRYSON, Norman..,Word and Image:French Painting of the Ancien Regime,
(Cambridge:U. of Cambridge ,1981)
BRYSON , Norman.,(ed.) Calligram : Essays in New Art History from France,
(Cambridge:U. of Cambridge , 1988)
FOUCAULT, Michel., The Order of Things: An Archaeology of Human Sciences,
(N Y: Vintage, 1994.)
GOMBRICH ,E. H., Image and Word in twentieth-Century Art, 1991
GOMBRICH, E. H., Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial
Representation ,1969
GOODMAN, Nelson., The Language of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols,
Interpreting Contemporary Art, ed by BANN, Stephen., and ALLEN, William. ed.,
153
(London:Reaktion Books, 1991)
MITCHELL, W. J. T., Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology,1986
MITCHELL,W.J.T.,Picture Theory: Essays on Verbal and Visual Representation.
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.)
PANOFSKY, Erwin, "Iconography and Iconology", Meaning in the Visual Art, 1955
TODOROV, Tzvetan and Oswald Ducrot.Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Sciences
of Language.Trans. by Catherine Porter. ( Baltimore: Johns and
Hopkins UP, 1983)
Visual Theory: Painting and Interpretation. ed. by BRYSON, Norman .,HOLLY,
Michael Ann.,MOXEY, Keith.,(New York: Harper Collins, 1991)
廖炳惠,《解構批評論集》,(台北:東大,1985)
劉紀蕙,《文學與藝術八論——互文‧對位‧文化詮釋》,(台北:三民,83)
呂清夫,《藝評家群像》,(台北:史博館,86)
《框架內外:藝術、文類與符號疆界》,劉紀蕙主編,(台北:立緒,88)
《傅柯--超越結構主義與詮釋學》,Deryfus, Hubert L. 與Rabinow, Paul 著,錢
俊譯,(台北:桂冠,81 年)。
《羅蘭.巴特》(Barthes),CULLER, Jonathan.著,方謙譯,(台北:桂冠,1993)
《結構主義與符號學》(Structuralism and Semiotics),HAWKES, Terence.著,陳
永寬譯,(台北:南方,1988)
《近代西方思想史》(An Intellectual History of Modern Europe),STROMBERG,
Roland N.著,蔡伸章一譯,(台北:桂冠,1993)
《當代語藝觀點》(Contemporary Perspectives on Rhetoric)FOSS, Sonja K. ,
FOSS, Karen A., TRAPP, Robert.著,林靜伶譯,(台北:五南,85)
《文學的後設思考:當代文學理論家》,呂正惠主編,(台北:正中書局。1991)
指導教授 李明明(Ming-Ming Li) 審核日期 2001-7-16
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