博碩士論文 86242002 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:10 、訪客IP:3.93.75.30
姓名 陳韡鼐(Wei-Nai Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 物理學系
論文名稱 中壢上空10–30公里間的卷雲、氣膠、溫度的測量與光散射性質之研究
(The measurements and scattering propertites of aerosol, cirrus, and temperature between 10-30 km above Chung_li)
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摘要(中) 本論文報告並討論了我們在1999–2001 年間以Rayleigh/Mie Lidar (光達) 遙測10–30 公里的夜間的大氣溫度、卷雲、以及氣膠的方法與結果。我們詳細分析了溫度計算以及以光達方程式解出背向散射係數的各種可能誤差, 以此決定光達系統的觀測操作條件。在溫度的
測量上, 我們除了以背景氣膠對散射光訊號作修正之外, 並提出新的低空大氣密度的演算法來提高溫度計算的準確性。溫度的測量結果除了與氣象局的探空資料相當吻合之外, 並顯示出光達在研究大氣溫度的長期與短期性變化的潛力。卷雲及氣膠的測量結果除了與衛星的氣膠與雲頂高度資料作比較之外, 我們並針對卷雲發展出估計 Lidar Ratio 與多重散射因子的方法, 降低了卷雲光散射性質的可能誤差。我們發現目前平流層背景氣膠的高度分佈主要在25–30 公里之間, 而卷雲則集中出現在夏季的對流層頂附近, 高度分佈則顯現出熱帶與副熱帶的混和形式。此外, 對流層氣膠的高度分佈被發現可能與卷雲有關, 而卷雲本身的消偏振率與消光係數則顯示出卷雲的各種光散射性質可能主要與卷雲的粒徑有關。
摘要(英) The Rayleigh/Mie Lidar measurements about the aerosol, cirrus, and temperature between 10-30 km above Chung_li are reported in this thesis. The analysis methods and errors was studied in detail. The results are compared with HALOE satellite data and showing good agrees. The liscattering properties are found to be relative with the size of cirrus particles.
關鍵字(中) ★ 光達
★ 卷雲
★ 氣膠
★ 溫度
關鍵字(英) ★ Lidar
★ cirrus
★ aerosol
★ temperature
論文目次 1 論文簡介1
1.1 溫度的測量. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 平流層氣膠. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 卷雲. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 光達的測量與計算理論基礎6
2.1 光達方程式. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2 卷雲與氣膠的光散射性質. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.1 背向散射係數與背向散射比– 光達方程式的解. . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.2 消光係數與光學厚度. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2.3 誤差分析. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3 卷雲的Lidar Ratio 與多重散射因子. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.3.1 Lidar Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.3.2 多重散射. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.4 消偏振率. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.4.1 定義. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.4.2 誤差分析. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.5 大氣溫度與密度. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.5.1 溫度演算法. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.5.2 大氣密度的推算. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.5.3 誤差分析. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.6 其他. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.6.1 空氣的背向散射係數. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.6.2 臭氧的吸收. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.6.3 水氣的影響. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3 偏振光達之系統裝置34
3.1 偏振光達. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2 望遠鏡與雷射光束的疊合. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.3 光子計數系統的非線性效應. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.3.1 Dead Time 效應. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.3.2 光電管的飽和. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.4 衛星與氣象局探空資料. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.5 誤差. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4 背景氣膠43
4.1 氣膠的計算. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.2 氣膠的背向散射比. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.3 氣膠的Lidar Ratio 與粒徑分佈. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.4 討論. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5 高對流層與低平流層溫度54
5.1 典型的溫度測量結果. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.2 對流層頂. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.3 討論. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6 卷雲60
6.1 典型觀測到的卷雲. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.2 卷雲的高度分佈. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.3 卷雲的光散射性質. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6.3.1 背向散射比與厚度. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
6.3.2 光學厚度與消光係數. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
6.3.3 Lidar Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
6.3.4 消偏振率. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.4 討論. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
7 總結86
7.1 氣膠. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.2 溫度測量. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.3 卷雲. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.4 結語. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
A Gobbi 的氣膠參數式...........................................89
B 一些探空與衛星資料的統計結果91
B.1 溫度. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
B.2 相對濕度. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
B.2.1 氣象局探空資料. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
B.2.2 HALOE 衛星資料. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
B.3 風向. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
B.4 風速. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
B.5 冰的蒸汽壓與溫度的關係. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
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指導教授 倪簡白(Jan-Bai Nee) 審核日期 2002-12-18
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