博碩士論文 86242004 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:5 、訪客IP:18.206.187.81
姓名 蘇裕農(Yu-Nung Su)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 天文研究所
論文名稱 毫米與次毫米波段的大質量恆星形成
(Massive Star Formation at Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths)
相關論文
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★ 中美掩星計畫的光度資料分析★ 薔薇星雲中的X射線源
★ 銀河系球狀星團 M13 之中頻寬 CCD 光度測量及其恆星組成★ 中美掩星計劃的掩星偵測和星場選擇
★ 晚期恆星之環星物質的結構研究★ 豺狼三分子雲中的年輕星球
★ 塵粒成長對原行星盤能譜分佈演化之作用★ Identification of Herbig Ae/Be Starsin Open Clusters
★ OB星協裡的中低質量星球的形成★ 船底座星雲之多波段研究
★ 從中美掩星計畫資料裡計算古伯帶遮掩背景星的機率以及尋找變星★ RCW57 之近紅外偏極化影像觀測
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摘要(英) Abstract
This dissertation investigates massive star Formation in the Milky Way via millimeter and submillimeter observations of luminous young stellar objects.
First, I describe a snapshot continuum and multi-molecular-line survey with the BIMA array aimed at characterizing very young high-mass stars. The target sample consists of eleven luminous IRAS sources associated with very young ultracompact (UC) HII regions, which have weak cm-wave flux densities and very compact angular sizes despite their small (kinematic) distances. In this
way, I hope to preferentially select and study extremely young high-mass stars. Most of the 3 millimeter continuum emission shows multiple components, which is consistent with the picture of a clustered formation mode of massive stars. I identify five 3 mm dust sources as good candidates for high-mass protostars because
they are coincident in position with their luminous IRAS counterparts and dense molecular gas as traced by H13CO+ emission, yet not detected at 3.6 cm. The typical dust and gas
mass of the 3 mm components is a few tens M_sun, while the 3 mm components with centimeter counterparts are ~5 times less massive than those not associated with centimeter continuum, suggesting that some 3 mm sources with centimeter counterparts may relate to very young intermediate-mass stars. On the other hand,
due to the relatively weak centimeter luminosity of a few mJy kpc^2, some target centimeter continuum sources could correspond to stellar winds/jets rather than real HII . Furthermore,
I present near-IR photometry of the target compact centimeter sources obtained from the new released Two Micron All Sky Survey archival data.
Second, I present millimeter observations with the BIMA array of the bipolar molecular outflows associated with the luminous far-IR sources IRAS
21519+5613 and IRAS 22506+5944. Although outflows have been identified as a common occurrence in the formation of both high-and low-mass stars, only about ten molecular outflows associated
with luminous young stellar objects have been studied in high angular resolutions (<10"). I find that the outflow associated with each IRAS source shows a clear bipolar morphology in 12CO, with properties (i.e., total mass of order 10-100
M_sun, mass-outflow rate >10^-3 M_sun yr^-1, dynamical timescale 10^4-10^5 yrs, and
energetics) comparable with those of other massive outflows associated with luminous young stellar objects. Each outflow appears to be centered on a dust and gas condensation with a mass of 200-300 M_sun, likely marking the location of the driving source. The mass-velocity diagrams of both outflows change in slope at a velocity of ~10 km s^-1, suggesting that
the high-velocity component (HVC) may drive the low-velocity component (LVC). Neither HVC has a momentum supply rate sufficient to drive their corresponding LVCs, and as for other molecular
outflows the primary driving agent cannot be ionized gas, leaving atomic gas as the other remaining candidate.
Finally, I present a first glimpse at the small-scale distribution of dust around UC HII regions and high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs) at 0.85 mm made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA), and investigate whether HMPOs and UC HII regions can serve as useful gain calibrators for the SMA. The SMA observations with an angular resolution of ~3" reveal that although a large fraction of the dust emission originates from an extended ``halo’’ component, a compact unresolved component often remains that when sufficiently strong may serve as a useful calibrator. I discuss
the origin of the core-halo structure seen in many sources and conclude with suggestions for future searches for calibrators with the SMA.
關鍵字(中) ★ 原恆星
★ 恆星形成
★ 氫離子區
★ 星際介質
★ 大質量恆星
關鍵字(英) ★ star formation
★ HII region
★ intestellar medium
★ high-mass star
★ protostar
論文目次 Abstract iii
List of Figures ix
List of Tables xi
1 Background and Motivation 1
1.1 Models of High-Mass Star Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Observational Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.1 Centimeter Free-Free Emission — Ultracompact HII Regions 7
1.2.2 Hot Molecular Cores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.3 Sub-Millimeter Continuum — Dust Cocoons . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.4 Maser Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.5 Molecular Outflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2.6 Mid-Infrared Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.3 Motivation and Outline of this Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2 Young Ultracompact HII Regions and High-Mass Protostars 21
2.1 ntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.1 Molinari et al. (1996, 1998a, 2000, 2002) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.1.2 Sridharan et al. (2002) & Beuther et al. (2002a) . . . . . . . . 24
2.1.3 Overview of This Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.2 The Sample & Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.2.1 The Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.2.2 Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3 3 Millimeter Continuum Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.3.1 Radiation Mechanisms — Free-Free or Dust Emission . . . . 37
2.3.2 Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
2.4 H13CO+ Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.4.1 Structure & Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.4.2 Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
2.5 Near-Infrared Emission — the 2MASS Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.6 The Nature of Centimeter Continuum Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.6.1 Radio Jets associated with YSOs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.6.2 Emission Mechanisms — UV Radiation or Jets/Winds . . . . 55
2.6.3 Radio Continuum Emission without 3 mm Dust Counterparts 57
2.6.4 Radio Continuum Emission with Near-IR Counterparts . . . . 58
2.7 Candidates of High-Mass Protostar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.8 The Nature of 3 mm Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
2.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3 Bipolar Molecular Outflows from High-Mass Protostars 65
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
3.2 Observations & Data Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.2.1 BIMA array and NRAO 12 m Telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.2.2 Combining Single-dish and Interferometric Data . . . . . . . 70
3.3 Dust and Molecular Gas Condensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.3.1 Structure and Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.3.2 Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.4 Bipolar Molecular Outflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
3.4.1 Structure and Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
3.4.2 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.4.3 Mass/Position vs Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.5 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.5.1 Outflow Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
3.5.2 Outflow Driving Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3.5.3 Outflow Driving Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
4 In Search of SMA Calibrators 101
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.2 Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4.2.1 Sample Selection and Observational Strategy . . . . . . . . . 103
4.2.2 Observational Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.3 Structure of the 0.85 mm Continuum Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4.4 Suitability as Calibrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4.5 Dust Distribution of UC H.418ptII Regions and HMPOs . . . . . . . 115
4.6 Discussion of Individual Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
4.6.1 G10.841–2.592 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
4.6.2 G45.07+0.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
4.7 Future Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
5 Conclusion 121
Bibliography 125
Appendix Comments on Individual Candidate HMPO Sources 135
A.1 IRAS 02575+6017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
A.2 IRAS 06056+2131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
A.3 IRAS 06058+2138 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
A.4 IRAS 20350+4126 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
A.5 IRAS 22551+6221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
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指導教授 陳文屏、林仁良
(Wen-Ping Chen、Jeremy Lim)
審核日期 2004-6-25
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