博碩士論文 86321027 詳細資訊




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姓名 何政恩(Cheng-En Ho)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 化學工程與材料工程學系
論文名稱 先進半導體封裝技術中之金脆效應及其有效抑制方法
(THE GOLD-EMBRITTLEMENT PHENOMENON IN ADVANCED ELECTRONIC PACKAGES ANDITS PREVENTION)
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摘要(中) ABSTRACT
Solder joints are the most vulnerable links in microelectronic devices. In fact, failure in solder joints is the most common root cause responsible for malfunction in electronic products. Therefore, improving the solder joints reliability is one of the most important tasks for electronic industry.
Gold-bearing finishes, such as the Au/Ni bi-layer, are extensively used in the electronic devices to protect the solderable pads against oxidation that can degrade the reliability of solder joints. After soldering, the surfaces Au will get into the solder and form many Au-bearing intermetallic particles, (Au1-xNix)Sn4. Ductility loss of the solder due to the presence of these brittle (Au1-xNix)Sn4 particles in the matrix is known as the “gold-embrittlement” [BAN1, DAE, DUC, ENW, FOS, GLA2, VIA, WIL]. Typically, the “gold-embrittlement” phenomenon occurres in the solder joint as the gold concentration is in excess of 3 wt.%. However, recent studies [BAN2, MEI2, MIY] reported that a different “gold-embrittlement” phenomenon could occur at a nominal Au concentration, which was much less than 3 wt.%. Instead of weakening the bulk solder, it deteriorated the solder/pad interface by forming a continuous (Au1-xNix)Sn4 layer at the interface. This second phenomenon has become a critical issue in the electronic industry for many years. The objective of this thesis is to probe into the mechanism for this phenomenon and to find approaches to inhibit this phenomenon.
In this thesis, it is established that the (Au1-xNix)Sn4 was based on the AuSn4 structure. It is proposed that the driving force for (Au1-xNix)Sn4 to come back to the interface is to seek Ni to become more Ni-rich so that the Gibbs free energy can become smaller. Furthermore, this thesis suggests three techniques to avoid the formation of a brittle (Au1-xNix)Sn4 layer at the interface. The first technique is to use a thinner gold in the surface finish so that the amounts of (Au1-xNix)Sn4 formed is smaller. The second is to saturate the AuSn4 with added Ni so that AuSn4 does not have to go back to the interface for Ni. The third is to avoid the formation of (Au1-xNix)Sn4 by adding a specific amount of Cu (0.5 wt.%) inside the joint. In fact, the doped Cu will form a more stable Cu6Sn5-based phase and force the Au atoms to dissolve into and trap by it, instead of forming the undesirable (Au1-xNix)Sn4.
In the Appendix of this thesis, the strong effect of Cu on the interfacial reaction will be reported. We found that the structure of the intermetallic compound formed was very sensitive to a slight variation in the Cu concentration of solder joints. When the solder joints are Cu-free, the intermetallic compound had the crystal structure based on Ni3Sn4. With increasing Cu concentration, the reaction products changed from a Ni3Sn4-based compound into a Ni3Sn4-based compound plus a Cu6Sn5-based compound. When the Cu concentration increased even more, the reaction product became a Cu6Sn5-based compound. More importantly, it was found that the formation of Cu6Sn5-based compound at the interface could result in a lower Ni consumption rate. This reduction in Ni consumption suggests that a thinner Ni layer can be used with Cu-doped solder joints. Rationalizations for these effects were presented in the main text of Appendix A.
關鍵字(中) ★ 銲料
★ 封裝
★ 金脆
關鍵字(英) ★ package
★ gold-embrittlement
★ solder
論文目次 CONTENTS
Page
ABSTRATE (CHINESE) I
ABSTRATE (ENGLISH) III
CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES VIII
FIGURES CAPTION IX
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: PACKAGES AND SOLDERS
1.1 Microelectronic Packages 2
1.2 Soldering, Solders, and Au/Ni Surface Finish 10
1.3 Reaction Kinetics of Solder with Au/Ni during Soldering: The Formation of (Au1-xNix)Sn4 in Solder Joints 33
CHAPTER II CATASTROPHIC FAILURE IN ADVANCED PACKAGES: EXTREMELY WEAK SOLDER JOINTS INDUCED BY (AU1-XNIX)SN4 INTERMETALLIC
2.1 Traditional “Gold-Embrittlement” in Bulk Solder 48
2.2 New “Gold-Embrittlement” Induced by (Au1-xNix)Sn4 Migration to the Solder/Pad Interface, Forming the (Au1-xNix)Sn4/Ni3Sn4 Intermetallic-to-Intermetallic Interface 53
2.3 The Objective of this Thesis 60
CHAPTER III THE MECHANISM FOR (AU1-XNIX)SN4 MIGRATION TO THE INTERFACE
3.1 Interesting (Au1-xNix)Sn4 Phenomena in Solder Joints: Our Observations 62
3.1.1 Solder Joints Aged at 100-180oC 65
3.1.2 Crystal Structure of (Au1-xNix)Sn4 81
3.1.3 Multiple “Reflow-Aging” Cycles 88
3.2 Driving Force for (Au1-xNix)Sn4 Migration to the Interface 96
3.3 Kinetic Rationales for (Au1-xNix)Sn4 Migration 110
CHAPTER IV TECHNIQUES FOR INHIBITING THE FORMATION OF THE BRITTLE (AU1-XNIX)SN4 LAYER AT THE INTERFACE
4.1 Using An Ultra-Thin Au Finish for Soldering 122
4.2 The Competitor, “Ni”, Doped into Solder Joints 130
4.3 Appling Cu6Sn5-Based Compound to Incorporate Au 133
4.3.1 Discovery of Cu Participation in the Reaction 134
4.3.2 Using Cu-Bearing Solders for Soldering 147
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION 165
APPENDIX
A. Strong Effect of Cu Concentration on the Interfacial Reaction 167
A.1 Controlling the Formation of Intermetallics 168
A.2 Reducing the Consumption of Ni Metallization 199
B. Solubility of Au in Ni3Sn4 at Different Locations 215
C. Lists of Publications 220
REFERENCES 223
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指導教授 高振宏(C. R. Kao) 審核日期 2002-7-18
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