||夏娃一直以來是個備受爭議的角色, 在失樂園中, 作者賦予夏娃身為人的主體性, 她會思考,也有感覺, 懂得選擇,也因為這個主體性,讓伊甸園的主宰倍感威脅,為了維持伊甸社會的秩序, 上帝運用多種手段,企圖馴化夏娃, 諷刺的是,這手段最後被其敵人, 撒旦,用來解放夏娃,最後導致伊甸社會的崩解,本論文即是要討論此手段,以及夏娃如何在馴化的過程中,保有並展現其主體性.|
Paradise Lost, as an epic about “man’s first disobedience” (I. 1), does not deal with the proposed theme directly. The actual disobedience is depicted only in Book IX. Through this arrangement, John Milton presents one of “Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme” (I. 16) in the poetry that I am seeking to discuss. Namely, Milton creates Eve as a subject with subjectivity that can feel and think and that can eventually ignore the oppressive situation in the society of Eden ruled by God when choosing what to do. Eve has the desire for an other self. She can tell whose appearance is less fair between Adam and the image in the waters. She knows her responsibility of taking care of the garden. She has the ability to choose whether to eat the forbidden fruit or not and to choose where to stay.
In this thesis, my task is to explain how the poet uses hairstyles to convey Eve’s ambiguous and sifting status in Eden and how Eve’s subjectivity is reclaimed when she is newly born, because God is trying to establish hierarchical relationship with man by giving her to Adam as a precious gift. Then, when God tries to domesticate human beings by directing what to eat and how to eat, Satan imitates God’s strategy of controlling human eating and then overturns His kingdom, and Eve, in this context, is no longer the helper and the passive gift of her husband, but a helper of Satan and a positive participant of social activities. Eve, by the end of the story, not only takes her subjectivity back, for she eventually makes her won decision to stay with Adam, but also creates an infinite future for human beings, though she and Adam are expelled from the Paradise. Even in God’s oppressive domestication, Eve still keeps her lively and unrestrained character, which is just like her tendrils showing us.
Alter, Robert. Genesis: Translation and Commentary. New York: Norton, 1996.
Babb, Lawrence. The Moral Cosmos of Paradise Lost. East Lansing: Michigan UP, 1970.
Bates, Catherine. “No Sin But Irony: Kierkegaard And Milton’s Satan.” Literature and Theology: An International Journal of Theory, Criticism and Culture. 11.1 (1997): 1-26.
Belsey, Catherine. John Milton: Language, Gender, Power. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. “Kubla Khan.” 1816. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. M. H. Abrams. Vol. 2. Norton: New York, 1993. 346-349.
Corum, Richard. “In White Ink: Paradise Lost and Milton’s Ideas of Women.” Milton and the Idea of Woman. Illinois: Illinois UP, 1988. 120-147.
Douglas, Mary. Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology. London: Routledge, 1970.
---. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge, 1984.
Empson, William. Milton’s God. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1981.
Turner, James G. One Flesh: Paradisal Marriage and Sexual Relations in the Age of Milton. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.
Furst, Lilian R. Introduction. Disorderly Eating: Text in Self-Empowerment. By Furst. Ed. Lilian R. Furst and Peter W. Graham. PA: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1992. 3-9.
Gallagher, Philip J. Milton, the Bible, and Misogyny. Columbia: Missouri Univ. Press, 1990.
Kester, Gunilla Theander. “The Forbidden Fruit and Female Disorderly Eating: Three Versions of Eve.” Disorderly Eating: Text in Self-Empowerment. Ed. Lilian R. Furst and Peter W. Graham. PA: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1992. 231-238.
Leonard, John. Naming in Paradise: Milton and the Language of Adam and Eve. Oxford: Clarendon, 1990.
Martin, Thomas L. “On the Margin of God: Deconstruction and the Language of Satan in Paradise Lost.” Milton Quarterly 29.2 (1995): 41-47.
McColley, Diane Kelsey. Milton’s Eve. Illinois: Illinois UP, 1983.
Medeiros, Paulo. “Cannibalism and Starvation: The Parameters of Eating Disorders in Literature.” Disorderly Eating: Text in Self-Empowerment. Ed. Lilian R. Furst and Peter W. Graham. PA: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1992. 11-27.
Miller, Hillis J. Theory Now and Then. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991.
Milton, John. Paradise Lost. 1667. Ed. Alastair Fowler. London: Longman, 1998.
Nicholson, Mervyn. “Magic Food, Compulsive Eating, And Power Poetics” Disorderly Eaters: Texts in Self-Empowerment. Ed. Lilian R. Furst and Peter W. Graham. PA: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1992. 43-54.
Nyquist, Mary. “The Genesis of Gendered Subjectivity in the Divorce Tracts and in Paradise Lost.” Re-membering Milton. Ed. Mary Nyquist and Margaret W. Ferguson. NY: Methuen, 1987. 99-127.
Riggs, William G. “The Temptation of Milton’s Eve: ‘Words, Impregn’d/ With Reason’.” JEGP 94 (1995): 365-392.
Rubin, Gayle. “The Traffic in Womn: Notes on the ‘Political Economy’ of Sex.” Toward an Anthropology of Women. Ed. Rayna R. Reiter. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975. 157-210.
Yoon, Hye-Joon. “The Fiend Who Came Thir Bane”: Satan’s Gift To Paradise Lost.” Milton Studies. 29 (1992): 3-19.
The Holy Bible. 3rd ed. New International Version, 1984.