博碩士論文 87324073 詳細資訊




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姓名 王騰興(Teng-Hsing Wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 電機工程學系
論文名稱 資料隱藏技術應用於 H.263 視訊編碼之錯誤偵測
(Error Detection using Data Embedding for H.263 Compatible Video Coding)
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摘要(中) 對使用熵編碼的 H.263 影像而言,碼字傳送錯誤不僅影響所傳的碼字本身,而且可能會造成連續錯誤使得接收到的影像嚴重破壞﹔雖然利用 H.263 的編碼機制可以偵測部份錯誤,但利用這些機制偵測的成效不彰;因而源自於蔚為風潮的浮水印及資料隱藏概念,我們提出“利用資料隱藏技術應用於 H.263 視訊編碼之錯誤偵測技術”以彌補 H.263 編碼機制偵測能力的不足。
在這篇論文中,我們提出一個利用資料隱藏技術應用於 H.263 視訊編碼之錯誤偵測。利用隱藏在視訊中的資訊,偵測是否有錯誤發生。在編碼端預先將前一張編碼畫面中每一區塊的同位檢測碼,以資料隱藏的方式藏在目前編碼畫面的移動預估向量或殘餘區塊量化值之中,以使解碼端可利用這些同位檢測碼進一步偵測出原有可變長度碼解碼後所無法找出的錯誤。模擬結果展現出這樣的技術對於錯誤偵測能力有重大的改善而且所提出的技術相當具有實用性。
摘要(英) Due to the use of the variable length coding, a single error in the H.263 video bit stream may cause serious error propagation and quality degradation. Many error recovery techniques have been applied to H.263 video coding. Most importantly, the efficiency of the error recovery relies on the capability of the error detection. In this thesis, we propose a parity-embedded error detection technique for the H.263 compatible video coding. The requisite parity-check information is embedded in the encoded bit stream, which could be easily extracted by the decoder for detecting the actual error occurrence locations. At the encoder, all parity-check codes for all macroblocks in the previous frame are embedded into the motion vectors and the quantized residual DCT coefficients of the current encoding frame. Then the decoder can effectively manipulate these embedded bits to enhance the error detection capability at the macroblock-layer. From the simulation results, we can find that the proposed strategy is able to detect errors with extra 10~30% accuracy than the inherent variable length code provides at the bit error rate 10-2∼10-4. Moreover, the computation complexity is considerably low and the additional cost is only one-frame coding delay and little bitrate increase.
關鍵字(中) ★ 浮水印
★ 資料隱藏
★ H.263 視訊編碼
★ 錯誤隱藏
★ 錯誤偵測
★ 視訊
關鍵字(英) ★ H.263 Video Coding
★ Error Concealment
★ Error Detection
★ Data Hidin
★ Watermarking
★ Video
論文目次 第一章 緒論................................................1
1.1簡介....................................................1
1.2動機與目的..............................................2
1.3論文架構................................................3
第二章H.263視訊壓縮標準簡介與數位浮水印....................5
2.1 H.263 視訊壓縮標準簡介.................................5
2.2.1資料編碼器 (Source Coder).............................5
2.2.2 圖像格式與多工編碼器.................................9
2.1.3 四種選擇性編碼模式(Four Negotiable Coding Options).................................................10
2.2 數位浮水印............................................12
2.2.1 影像( Image )加入浮水印.............................15
2.2.1視訊( Video Source )加入浮水印.......................17
第三章 資料隱藏法.........................................24
3.1 移動向量資料隱藏法 ( DEMV )...........................25
3.2 估測差量資料隱藏法 ( DERC )...........................28
3.3 移動向量與估測差量資料隱藏法之評估...................37
第四章 錯誤偵測法.........................................43
4.1 錯誤偵測的重要性......................................44
4.2 合於H.263 視訊標準的錯誤偵測方法......................47
4.2.1 H.263 語意判斷法....................................48
4.2.2 H.263 向前錯誤更正法 ( FEC ) 之錯誤偵測法...........51
4.2.3 統計特性之錯誤偵測法................................53
4.3 資料隱藏技術應用於錯誤偵測的架構 ( PEED ).............54
4.4 錯誤隱藏之方法........................................63
4.4.1 移動向量補償之錯誤隱藏法(Motion Compensation Concealment Method)..................................................63
4.4.2空間域的像素內插之錯誤隱藏法(Spatial Interpolation Method)..................................................64
第五章 實驗結果分析與討論.................................66
5.1 資料隱藏能力分析......................................66
5.2 即時性的實現評估與影像壓縮品質........................68
5.3 偵測錯誤能力實驗結果..................................70
5.4 討論..................................................81
第六章 未來展望...........................................85
參考文獻..................................................87
參考文獻 [1]ITU-T Recommendation H.261: Video Codec for Audiovisual Services at Px64 Kbits, ITU, 1993.
[2]Draft ITU-T Recommendation H.263: Video Coding for Low Bitrate Communication, ITU, May 1996.
[3]Draft ITU-T Recommendation H.263+: Video Coding for Low Bitrate Communication, ITU, July 1997.
[4] “MPEG-2 video and system international standard,” ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG 94, Nov. 1994
[5] J. Lee and C. S. Won, "Authentication and correction of difital watermarking images," ELECTRONICS LETTERS, Vol. 35, No. 11, p. 886-887, 27th May. 1999.
[6] C. T. Hsu and J. L. Wu, "Hidden Digital Watermarks in Images," IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 8, No. 1, p. 58-68, JAN. 1999.
[7] I. J. Cox, J. Kilian, F. Thomson and T. Shamoon "Secure spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia," IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 6, No. 12, p. 1673-1687, Dec. 1997
[8] M. Barni, F. Bartolini, V. Cappellini, and A. Piva "Robust Watermarking of Still Images for Copyright Protection," Digital Signal Processing Proceedings, DSP 97, 1997 13th International Conference on 1997
[9] J. Song, and K. J. R. Liu, “A Data Embedding Scheme for H.263 Compatible Video Coding,” ISCAS '99. Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE International Symposium on, vol. 4 , p. 390 —393, 1999
[10] ITU-T/SG15, Video Codec Test Model, TMN5, Jan. 1995.
[11] A. Andreadis, G. Benelli, A. Garzelli and S. Susini, "FEC coding for H.263 compatible video transmission,", International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 3, p. 579-581, 1997.
[12] W. J. Chu and J. J. Leou, "Detection and Concealment of Transmission Errors in H.261 Images," IEEE Trans. on Circuit and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 8, No. 1, p. 74-84, Feb. 1998.
[13] H. C. Shyu and J. J. Leou, "Detection and Concealment of Transmission Errors in MPEG-2 Images-A Genetic Algorithm Approach," IEEE Trans. on Circuit and Systems for Video technology, vol. 9, No. 6, p. 937-948, Sep. 1999.
[14] M. R. Pickering, M. R. Frater and J. F. Arnold, "A statistical error detection technique for low bit-rate video," TENCON’97 —IEEE Region 10 Annual Conference. Speech and Image Tech for Computing and Telecommunication, vol. 2 p. 773-776, 1997
[15] C. S. Kim, R. C Kim and S. U. Lee, “Robust Transmission of Video Sequence over Noisy Channel Using Parity-Check Motion Vector,” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions, vol9, no. 7, p. 1063-1074, Oct. 1999
[16] C. L Lee, C. S. Lung, W. S. Shieh, T, S Liu, P. K Liao and H.R Chang, “視訊電話與視訊會議中視訊壓縮編碼國際標準模擬之研究,” 電信雙月刊, vo23, no. 5, p. 671-690, Oct. 1993
[17] T. H. Lee and P. C. Chang, “Error Robust H.263 Video Coding with Video Segment Regulation and Precise Error Tracking,” conditionally accepted by IEICE Trans. on Communications, 2000.
[18] S. Aign and K. Fazel, “Temporal and spatial error concealment techniques for hierarchical MPEG-2 video codec,” Proceeding of Inform, pp. 1778-1783, 1995]
[19] M. J. Chen, L. G Chen and R. M. Weng, “Error Concealment of Lost Motion Vectors with Overlapped Motion Compensation,” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions, vol 7, no. 3, p. 564-568, Oct. 1997
[20] P. C. Chang and T. H. Lee, “Precise and Fast Error Tracking for Error-Resilient Transmission of H.263 Video,” to appear in IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 10, no. 4, Jun. 2000.
指導教授 張寶基(Pao-Chi Chang) 審核日期 2000-6-15
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