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論文名稱 弦外之音:惠特曼詩中的超越觀
(Melody beyond Words: Whitman's Transcendental Vision in His Poetry)
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摘要(中) 本論文透過探索惠特曼詩中呈現出的超越觀,以解析其中所包含的深度思想。作者在早期的作品中,試圖寰宇兼包,並超越一些衝突與矛盾。透過詩人在南北戰爭期間的經歷,我們可以瞭解他的愛國情操以及幫助受難者的同情心,這段經驗同時也改變了他某些層面的超越觀,尤其是在死亡這方面。儘管如此,戰爭的殘酷並沒有削弱他的超越觀,反而使他對生死有更深的體認,並進一步預見美國民主未來的發展。
摘要(英) This thesis deals with Whitman’s poems by investigating his transcendental vision as an important factor that embodies the profound thoughts of the poet. In his early works, Whitman’s concept of universal embracement has already reflected his transcendentalism. Although sometimes we may find his universal embracement seems over-idealized due to its quality of wide inclusiveness, we still can see him balancing and transcending the conflicts involved. As a universal poet, the issue of conflicts is what he attempts to handle and overcome in his writing. Then, through his volunteer work during the Civil War, Whitman shows his great patriotism and sympathy in helping people in need, and his experiences modify certain perspectives of his transcendental vision, especially in the respect of death. Nevertheless, the cruelty of the war does not diminish his transcendental vision; instead it brings out his deeper understanding of death and life and predicts the future development of American democracy.
Through an overview of Whitman’s transcendentalism, we can perceive a higher level of his vision by studying his poetic fluidity and universal experience. In a deeper sense, his transcendental vision not only suggests the union of all things in a concept of wholeness but also moves on to a transparent state of mind— the state of nothingness. We can trace this back to Whitman’s early works and grasp the contour of such a state of mind by which he transcends all limits and boundaries.
Whitman’s transcendentalism plays an important role in his entire career. This study of his transcendental vision will focus on how it develops and matures. The second chapter examines Whitman’s universal embracement in his poems in which we can see his embracing all qualities through his sympathy and identification with everything of the world, including such opposing forces as good and evil, body and soul, life and death, etc. He not only intends to absorb the conflicts in his universal embracement but also attempts to transcend them. The third chapter discusses Whitman’s transcendental vision under the impact of the Civil War and his transformation from patriotism to sympathy with both North and South so as to reach conciliation. Such a change also influences his attitude toward democracy in the postwar reconstruction. Chapter four studies Whitman’s transcendental vision that helps form his special position in American literature.
The last chapter does a review of Whitman’s transcendental vision by discussing its connection with his nation and American literature as a whole. Indeed, Whitman’s transcendental vision, like melody beyond his poetic expressions, gives us deeper insight into the great communion in the universe.
關鍵字(中) ★ 惠特曼
★ 超越觀
★ 民主詩人
關鍵字(英) ★ democratic poet
★ transcendentalism
★ transcendental vision
★ Whitman
論文目次 Chapter I Introduction: A Poet with a Transcendental Mind 1
Chapter II Whitman’s Universal Embracement 9
Chapter III Whitman’s Transcendentalism under the Impact of the War 27
Chapter IV Whitman’s Transcendental Vision 49
Chapter V Conclusion 69
Works Cited 74
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指導教授 郭章瑞(Chang-jui Kuo) 審核日期 2005-7-13
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