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姓名 吳宗樺(Tsung-hua Wu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 英美語文學系
論文名稱 弦外之音:惠特曼詩中的超越觀
(Melody beyond Words: Whitman's Transcendental Vision in His Poetry)
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摘要(中) 本論文透過探索惠特曼詩中呈現出的超越觀,以解析其中所包含的深度思想。作者在早期的作品中,試圖寰宇兼包,並超越一些衝突與矛盾。透過詩人在南北戰爭期間的經歷,我們可以瞭解他的愛國情操以及幫助受難者的同情心,這段經驗同時也改變了他某些層面的超越觀,尤其是在死亡這方面。儘管如此,戰爭的殘酷並沒有削弱他的超越觀,反而使他對生死有更深的體認,並進一步預見美國民主未來的發展。
透過惠特曼的超越主義,我們可瞭解他更高一層的遠見。他的超越觀不僅追求一種宇宙合一的概念,並且更進一步提升到一種空的境界。我們可以沿著詩人早期作品的脈絡勾勒出他超越一切界限及藩籬的心境。
惠特曼的超越主義在他整個寫作生涯中扮演著重要的角色。本論文的研究著重在這個思想是如何發展而趨於成熟。第二章檢視惠特曼詩中寰宇兼包的概念,作者藉由同理心以及對萬物的認同感表現出各種特質,其中也存在一些對立面,如善與惡、肉體與靈魂、生與死等等。他不僅想吸納這些衝突,且企圖超越他們。第三章將探討作者在南北戰爭的衝擊之下所呈現出的超越觀,還有他如何從愛國情操轉換成對南北雙方的同理心,進而協助恢復和平的狀態。這樣的轉變也影響他在戰後對於民主的看法。第四章將研究惠特曼的超越觀在美國文學所扮演的特殊地位。結論部份將重新檢視惠特曼的超越觀,來討論這樣的觀念與他的國家及美國文學的整體關聯性。透過詩中的弦外之音,惠特曼的超越觀使我們對宇宙萬物的關係有更深一層的瞭解。
摘要(英) This thesis deals with Whitman’s poems by investigating his transcendental vision as an important factor that embodies the profound thoughts of the poet. In his early works, Whitman’s concept of universal embracement has already reflected his transcendentalism. Although sometimes we may find his universal embracement seems over-idealized due to its quality of wide inclusiveness, we still can see him balancing and transcending the conflicts involved. As a universal poet, the issue of conflicts is what he attempts to handle and overcome in his writing. Then, through his volunteer work during the Civil War, Whitman shows his great patriotism and sympathy in helping people in need, and his experiences modify certain perspectives of his transcendental vision, especially in the respect of death. Nevertheless, the cruelty of the war does not diminish his transcendental vision; instead it brings out his deeper understanding of death and life and predicts the future development of American democracy.
Through an overview of Whitman’s transcendentalism, we can perceive a higher level of his vision by studying his poetic fluidity and universal experience. In a deeper sense, his transcendental vision not only suggests the union of all things in a concept of wholeness but also moves on to a transparent state of mind— the state of nothingness. We can trace this back to Whitman’s early works and grasp the contour of such a state of mind by which he transcends all limits and boundaries.
Whitman’s transcendentalism plays an important role in his entire career. This study of his transcendental vision will focus on how it develops and matures. The second chapter examines Whitman’s universal embracement in his poems in which we can see his embracing all qualities through his sympathy and identification with everything of the world, including such opposing forces as good and evil, body and soul, life and death, etc. He not only intends to absorb the conflicts in his universal embracement but also attempts to transcend them. The third chapter discusses Whitman’s transcendental vision under the impact of the Civil War and his transformation from patriotism to sympathy with both North and South so as to reach conciliation. Such a change also influences his attitude toward democracy in the postwar reconstruction. Chapter four studies Whitman’s transcendental vision that helps form his special position in American literature.
The last chapter does a review of Whitman’s transcendental vision by discussing its connection with his nation and American literature as a whole. Indeed, Whitman’s transcendental vision, like melody beyond his poetic expressions, gives us deeper insight into the great communion in the universe.
關鍵字(中) ★ 惠特曼
★ 超越觀
★ 民主詩人
關鍵字(英) ★ democratic poet
★ transcendentalism
★ transcendental vision
★ Whitman
論文目次 Chapter I Introduction: A Poet with a Transcendental Mind 1
Chapter II Whitman’s Universal Embracement 9
Chapter III Whitman’s Transcendentalism under the Impact of the War 27
Chapter IV Whitman’s Transcendental Vision 49
Chapter V Conclusion 69
Works Cited 74
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指導教授 郭章瑞(Chang-jui Kuo) 審核日期 2005-7-13
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