博碩士論文 88144002 詳細資訊




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姓名 石慧瑩(Huei-ying Shih)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 哲學研究所
論文名稱 環境正義之倫理基礎
(The Ethical Foundation of Environmental Justice)
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摘要(中) 「環境正義」(environmental justice)是面對環境爭議時經常使用的語詞。然而,什麼是「環境正義」,一直未能在環境倫理研究的脈絡中獲得有系統的概念梳理與建構,以致於現實社會上諸多環境行為、相關決策與爭議難以運用倫理學中的相應概念進行合理的判斷。決策者在遭遇環境不正義情況時必須承擔部分責任,因為他們往往不假思索的以量化和成本效益分析的方式來評估環境風險,而不去審慎思考包含於其中的正義問題。環境正義只是一個環境問題、一個政治問題或一個社會問題?其實,這些因素全都涵括在環境議題當中。更精確的說,環境正義研究對正義議題的關注遠超過對環境技術層面的討論。而這正是本篇論文所要呈現的內容--如何以倫理學上的正義觀點來分析環境正義的問題。
本論文首先從倫理學的角度來進行正義概念的梳理,論證環境正義其實就是社會正義所延伸出來的分支理念,其次以權利理論與效益理論對正義的不同理解進路為主軸,檢視不同進路對環境正義理論之解釋效力與限制。最後本文肯定這些對立的倫理理論其實都共同持有一種道德平等的價值觀,延伸來看,環境正義的根本訴求亦即道德主體(moral agent)在環境領域上要求獲得平等關懷與尊重(equal concern and respect),每個人在追求良善環境的道德起點上是平等的,在環境政策上都能獲得平等考量,不因社經地位或自然稟賦而有差異,環境利益與負擔的分配考量也應尊重每一位作為有尊嚴的個體。
摘要(英) ‘Environmental Justice’ is a popular term in the disputes over environmental issues. However, the meaning of ‘Environmental Justice’ hasn’t been systematically conceptual constructed in the context of research of environmental ethics. Many environmental behaviors and relevant policies in social reality are hard to be reasonably judged on the basis of relative ethical concepts. Policymakers bear some of the blame for the failure to confront environmental injustice. They typically use quantitative risk assessment and benefit-cost analysis in ways that are not sensitive to justice issues. Is ‘Environmental Justice’ an environmental issue? Is it a political issue? Is it a social issue? Actually, it is all of them. More accurate to say, environmental justice is devoted more systematically to the topic of justice than to the environmental technology. This is what I would like to present--how to analyze environmental justice issues using a justice-perspective, an ethical approach.
In the first place, I begin with clarifying the concept of justice in terms of viewpoints of ethics and then justify that environmental justice is actually a branch issue which derives from social justice. In the second place, according to theories of rights and utilitarian, which the different approaches of explanation of justice, I also examine the effectiveness and limitations of these two diverse theories over the goal of environmental justice. Finally, I affirm that these contradictory ethical theories actually share the same value -- moral equality. The fundamental target of environmental justice is that every moral agent is treated by equal concern and respect in the consideration about environmental issue. Each one is equal in terms of the moral starting point of pursuing healthy environment, and gets equal consideration according to environmental policies. Everyone should not be differently treated because of his or her social status and natural endowment. Meanwhile, the allocation of environmental benefit and burden should respect for every dignified individual.
關鍵字(中) ★ 正義理論
★ 環境正義
★ 效益
★ 權利
★ 道德平等
關鍵字(英) ★ moral equality
★ right
★ utility
★ environmental justice
★ theories of justice
論文目次 目 錄
中文摘要----------------------------------------- i
英文摘要-----------------------------------------ii
目錄--------------------------------------------iii
第一章   導論------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機與問題緣起------------------------1
一、環境倫理學的研究概況----------------------2
二、主流環境思想的不足------------------------3
三、環境正義概念起源--------------------------7
第二節 文獻探討----------------------------------9
第三節 研究方法與研究步驟-----------------------12
一、研究方法---------------------------------13
二、探討正義理念的兩種進路-------------------15
三、常見之環境正義探討進路-------------------17
第四節 研究目的---------------------------------18
一、凸顯環境正義在環境倫理研究中的論題重要性-19
二、釐清環境正義概念意涵並建立其倫理基礎-----20
第二章 正義理念與環境---------------------------23
第一節 正義理念研究-----------------------------24
一、早期的正義概念---------------------------25
二、嚴格正義---------------------------------26
三、從嚴格正義到社會正義---------------------28
四、從社會正義到環境正義---------------------29
第二節 環境正義議題的合理性---------------------31
一、正義的對象-------------------------------32
二、正義的環境-------------------------------36
三、環境正義的主要論題-----------------------38
第三節 分配正義的兩種進路-----------------------41
第四節 結語-------------------------------------42
第三章  效益主義與權利理論-----------------------45
第一節 效益進路----------------------------------45
一、效益計算---------------------------------47
二、效益主義的現代應用-----------------------50
三、兩種效益主義-----------------------------55
四、小結-------------------------------------59
第二節 權利進路---------------------------------60
一、權利理論的源起---------------------------61
二、權利的意涵與作用-------------------------62
三、Nozick的正義理論-------------------------64
四、小結-------------------------------------72
第四章  分層道德理論-----------------------------75
第一節 權利與效益之間---------------------------77
第二節 效益理論的分層方式-----------------------78
一、Mill的分層理論---------------------------79
二、Hare的兩層道德思維-----------------------81
第三節 權利理論的分層作法─Rawls的兩個正義原則--85
一、Rawls對效益主義的批評--------------------86
二、Rawls對權利理論的修正--------------------88
三、Rawls的分層理論──兩個正義原則----------90
第四節 結語-------------------------------------95
第五章  從倫理學理論到環境正義的應用-------------97
第一節 效益理論──古典效益主義-----------------97
一、個人利益與公共利益-----------------------98
二、最大化幸福或偏好滿足---------------------99
三、成本效益分析的運用----------------------103
四、效益主義的再分配論點--------------------106
第二節 效益理論──修正的效益主義--------------108
一、Hare的修正理論--------------------------108
二、Singer的全球效益主義--------------------109
第三節 Nozick的權利理論與環境正義--------------110
一、最小限度國家與損害賠償------------------111
二、財產過度私有化的問題--------------------112
三、消極權利與積極權利----------------------114
第四節 Rawls正義理論在環境正義上的延伸應用-----116
一、基本善在環境領域的應用------------------118
二、世代間的正義----------------------------121
第五節 環境決策的倫理思考----------------------123
一、道德平等--------------------------------124
二、程序正義--------------------------------125
三、尊重權利、嘉惠最少受惠者----------------126
四、重視效益與結果--------------------------128
五、環境行為準則與必要的干預----------------129
第六節 結語------------------------------------130
第六章  結論------------------------------------133
第一節 論題回顧--------------------------------133
第二節 限制與展望------------------------------137
參考文獻------------------------------------------139
參考文獻 參考文獻
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Pojman, Louis P.(1992) Life and Death : Grappling with the Moral Dilemmas of Our Time《生與死:現代道德困境的挑戰》江麗美譯(1995),(台北:桂冠圖書公司)。
Rawls, John (1971) A Theory of Justice《正義論》何懷宏、何包鋼、廖申白等譯(1988),(北京:中國社會科學出版社)。
----------(1999) A Theory of Justice《正義論》李少軍譯(2003),(台北:桂冠圖書公司)。
Sandel, Michael J.(1998) Liberalism and the Limits of Justice《自由主義與正義的局限》萬俊人等譯(2001),(南京:譯林出版社)。
Sen, Amartya (2001) Development as Freedom《以自由看待發展》任賾、于真譯(2002),(上海:中國人民大學出版社)。
Smart, J. J. C. & Williams, Bernard (1973) 《功利主義:贊成與反對》牟斌譯(1992),(北京:中國社會科學出版社)。
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指導教授 朱建民、劉阿榮
(Jien-ming Jue、A-Ron Liu)
審核日期 2008-7-21
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