博碩士論文 88322067 詳細資訊


姓名 郭明傳(Ming-Chuan Kuo)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 複合岩體之岩塊體積比量測及其力學行為
(The measurement of block volumetric fraction and the mechanical behaviors of composite rock mass)
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摘要(中) 「複合岩體」係由工程性質不同的粗顆粒岩塊及細粒基質材料或由兩種不同強、勁度的層狀岩石材料相互交錯所構成的混合岩體。由於複合岩體之異質性、異向性及其複雜的特性,此類地質之大地工程性質相當難以評估與掌握。而複合岩體之工程性質與力學行為主要受到組成材料之力學性質、內部岩塊體積比、岩塊排列方向或強度及變形異向性所影響。
其中,岩塊體積比則是最常用以評估複合岩體整體工程性質的參數,因此,本文利用數值模擬方式,藉由分析一代表性表徵單元內掃瞄線長度與岩塊顆粒相交長度,來探討掃瞄線長度、岩塊粒徑、岩塊體積比、岩塊長短軸比及岩塊排列方向對掃瞄線所求取之面積比的影響,建立各影響因素相互間的關係,並以統計學上「信心度」及「信賴區間」的觀念,給予掃瞄線法所求得之面積比一定性且定量的描述。
針對複合岩體之強度、變形性及其力學行為,採用試驗與理論併行方式來探討。利用人造方式製作具有「巨觀等向性」及「巨觀橫向等向性」之複合岩體,並進行一系列三軸試驗,以探討岩塊體積比、圍壓及層面傾角對複合岩體強度及變形性之影響。複合岩體破壞模態部分,利用改良型的旋轉式掃瞄器擷取試體破壞過程及破壞後之表面影像,以探討橫向等向性複合岩體的破壞過程及破壞機制,並就等向性及橫向等向性複合岩體的破壞模態進行分類及比較。理論分析部分,利用等值均質化觀念,以五種不同之微觀力學模式預測不同岩塊體積比之等向性複合岩體的楊氏係數與柏松比,結果顯示,利用微觀力學模式來預測等向性複合岩體之力學性質相當可行。並以異向性線彈性材料組成律模式,配合最大軸向應變理論及Jaeger(1960)之單一弱面理論,建立一個適合橫向等向性岩石的破壞準則。以此破壞準則針對不同類型之橫向等向性岩體及橫向等向性複合岩體在不同圍壓及傾角進行破壞強度預測,由理論預測與試驗數據比較,兩者相當吻合,足證此破壞準則之正確性、適用性與廣泛性。
摘要(英) Composite rock mass is a mixture of rocks, composed of geotechnically significant blocks with a bonded matrix of finer texture or rock materials with two kinds of distinct strength and stiffiness. Because of the heterogeneity, anisotropy and complex nature, composite rock mass is a kind of difficult geotechnical material with which to deal in geotechnical engineering. The engineering properties and mechanical behaviors of composite rock mass are mainly influenced by the mechanical properties of composite materials, volumetric fraction of block, preferred block orientation and the anisotropic behaviors of deformation and strength.
The volumetric fraction of block is a general parameter for assessing the overall engineering properties of composite rock mass. By analyzing the crossing length between the block and scanline in representative volume element (RVE), this research represented the discussion on the influence of total length of scanline, diameter of block, volumetric fraction of block, the aspect ratio of block and the preferred block orientation on the volumetric fraction of block measured by scanline. Using the concept of confidence level and confidence interval offers a qualitative and quantitative description of the volumetric fraction.
Furthermore, the main purpose of this research is to investigate the failure strength, deformation properties and mechanical behaviors of composite rock mass from both theorectical and experimental approaches. The preparation technique for artificial composite rock mass which overall mechanical properties are macroscopically isotropic and transversely isotropic is developed. A series of triaxial tests are conducted to investigate the influence of the volumetric fraction, confining pressure, the orientation angle on the composite rock mass. In the experiment carried out, a procedure using a rotary scanner to obtain the “unrolled” images of rock specimens at different stress level during the uniaxial compressive tests is employed. Based on the experimental results, the failure modes of isotropic rock mass and transversely isotropic rock mass are classified.
For theoretical prediction, five micromechanical models are used to predict the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of isotropic composite rock mass with different block proportions. Comparing the theoretical predictions with test results, the feasibility of using the micromechanical models to predict the mechanical properties of isotropic composite rock mass was investigated. A new failure criterion for the transversely isotropic rocks has been developed and presented. The criterion is based on the maximum axial strain criterion, the constitutive laws of linearly elastic of anisotropic materials and the theory of single plane of weakness. The predictions of the failure strength of various types of transversely isotropic rock masses with different orientation angles and under various confining pressures agree well with experimental data. The accuracy and the versatility of the criterion are demonstrated.
關鍵字(中) ★ 複合岩體
★ 岩塊體積比
★ 掃瞄線法
★ 人造複合岩體
★ 微觀力學模式
★ 破壞準則
★ 破壞模態
關鍵字(英) ★ micromechanics model
★ artificial composite rock mass
★ scanline
★ volumetric fraction
★ composite rock mass
★ failure criterion
★ failure mode
論文目次 摘 要 I
Abstract III
目 錄 V
圖 目 錄 IX
表 目 錄 XXI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的與方法 4
1.3 論文內容及架構 5
第二章 人造複合岩體之製作技術 8
2.1 等向性複合岩體之製作 9
2.1.1試體製作方式及流程 9
2.2 橫向等向性複合岩體之製作 11
2.2.1 模型材料之選擇 12
2.2.2 模型材料之組成 13
2.2.3 模型材料A及材料B之力學性質 13
2.2.4 橫向等向性複合岩體之製作流程 15
第三章 複合岩體之表面影像 18
3.1 表面展開影像之擷取 18
3.2 複合岩體之體積比量測方法 22
3.2.1 單位重法 24
3.2.2 面積比法 25
3.2.3 掃瞄線法 32
3.3 球形岩塊之表面影像特徵 36
3.3.1 複合岩體表面影像之顆粒幾何特性 36
3.3.2 表面影像推求複合岩體內部組成及粒徑特性 44
第四章 掃瞄線法之數值模擬 54
4.1 串接掃瞄線法之數值模擬 54
4.2 串接表徵單元法之數值模擬 60
4.2.1 代表性表徵單元(RVE)之選取 61
4.2.2 數值模擬架構之說明 63
4.2.3 數值模擬流程 66
4.2.4 掃瞄線總長度、面積比與標準差的關係 74
4.3 等圓球顆粒粒徑之數值模擬驗證 82
4.4 不同圓球顆粒粒徑之數值模擬驗證 83
4.5 橢圓球顆粒之數值模擬架構 90
4.5.1 橢圓球顆粒之代表性表徵單元選定 91
4.5.2 橢圓球顆粒之數值模擬流程 94
4.5.3 長短軸比 值及夾角 值與標準差的關係 97
4.6 顆粒之形狀因素探討 108
4.7 標準差與信心度之關係 114
4.8 案例演算及整體標準差之求取 115
4.9 現地案例之驗證 123
4.10 掃瞄線法之經驗建議長度探討 128
第五章 複合岩體之破壞模態 130
5.1 等向性岩體之破壞模態 136
5.2 等向性複合岩體之破壞模態 140
5.3 橫向等向性岩體之破壞模態 147
5.4 橫向等向性複合岩體之破壞過程及破壞模態 152
5.4.1 橫向等向性複合岩體之破壞過程 153
5.4.2 橫向等向性複合岩體之破壞模態分類 167
第六章 複合岩體之材料組成律 172
6.1 線彈性材料之組成律模式 173
6.1.1 單一彈性對稱面材料 174
6.1.2 三正交彈性對稱面材料 175
6.1.3 具一旋轉彈性對稱軸材料 176
6.1.4 完全對稱性材料 178
6.2 複合岩體之等值均質化觀念 178
6.2.1 等向性複合岩體之材料組成律 180
6.2.2 橫向等向性複合岩體之材料組成律 199
第七章 複合岩體之破壞準則 205
7.1 等向性材料之破壞準則 206
7.2 等向性複合岩體之破壞準則 212
7.3 橫向等向性材料之破壞準則 217
7.3.1數學理論之連續函數破壞準則 218
7.3.2非連續函數之破壞準則 228
7.3.3經驗公式之連續函數破壞準則 236
7.3.4 Tien and Kuo (2001)破壞準則 246
7.4橫向等向性複合岩體之破壞準則 270
7.4.1 橫向等向性複合岩體之破壞模態預測 274
第八章 結論與建議 276
8.1 結論 276
8.2 建議 280
參考文獻 282
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指導教授 田永銘(Yong-Ming Tien) 審核日期 2005-7-22
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