博碩士論文 88323032 詳細資訊


姓名 高正華(Z-H Gao )  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 機械工程研究所
論文名稱 Pb、Cu元素對熱壓燒結Al-Si合金磨耗腐蝕行為之影響
(Effect of Alloying Elements on the Wear-Corrosion Behavior of Al-Si Alloys)
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摘要(中) 以熱壓燒結製程製作含不同Pb(0-10 wt %)、Cu (3 wt%)之Al-Si (20 wt%)複合材料,並施以熱處理後,利用微結構分析、硬度與緻密度量測、磨耗、腐蝕、與磨耗腐蝕試驗,來評估Pb、Cu元素對Al-20Si合金在3.5wt%氯化鈉(NaCl)水溶液中(pH=6.7)磨耗腐蝕行為之影響。
結果顯示經熱壓製成之Al-Si-Pb-Cu複合材料,其緻密度約為理論密度的99%。添加Cu於Al-Si與Al-Si-Pb合金中可提升其硬度,其中Al-Si-Pb-Cu合金之硬度提升比例隨Pb含量增加而上升。於乾磨耗試驗中,合金磨耗量隨著Pb含量的增加而降低,而添加Cu於Al-Si合金中可強化基地,進一步提升其抗磨耗性質。而於腐蝕實驗中,添加Pb、Cu元素均會使合金之腐蝕電流上升,然而,當合金經熱處理後,除了Al-Si合金腐蝕電流升高外,其餘合金之腐蝕電流皆下降,並且腐蝕電位也顯得較為鈍性。此外,添加Pb則可促進合金的鈍化。
Al-Si-Pb合金之熱處理溫度顯著影響其腐蝕性質,當熱處理溫度(300℃)低於Pb熔點時,會使Pb的析出相粗大,導致腐蝕電流急劇升高,而當熱處理溫度(370℃)高於Pb熔點時,則Pb的析出相明顯細化並增加其抗蝕性。Al-Si合金具有優良之磨耗腐蝕性質,磨耗量隨外加電位往陽極增加而降低,而添加Pb和Cu皆可提升Al-Si合金之耐磨耗腐蝕性質,並且含Pb合金,由於具有良好的鈍化行為,當外加電位達鈍化區時,腐蝕電流與磨耗量皆明顯下降。
摘要(英) The synergistic wear-corrosion behavior of Al-20Si-XPb-YCu (X=0-10 wt %,Y=0-3 wt %) alloys fabricated by a hot pressing technique and further heat-treated was evaluated on a block-on-ring tribotest in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) aqueous solution. (pH 6.8) The studies involved the effects of applied potential and environments (dry air and 3.5% NaCl solution ) on the wear rate of alloys. Corrosion behavior was determined by potentiodynamic polarization tests. The results showed that the addition of both lead and copper improved the wear resistance but had a higher corrosion rate. However, heat treatment had a beneficial effect on the corrosion resistance of all alloys, and the lead content improved their passivity. In addition, the heat treatment temperature of Al-Si-Pb alloys had a significant effect on its corrosion resistance. When treating temperature (300?C) was below lead melting point, the lead phase precipitated larger, and corrosion rate increased sharply. On the contrary, as treating temperature (370?C) was above lead melting point, had the beneficial effect on both lead precipitate and corrosion resistance. Al-Si alloy had excellent wear corrosion resistance, the wear loss decreased with increasing applied potential anodically. Furthermore, the addition of both lead and copper improved wear corrosion resistance. Also, the passivity in containing lead Al-Si alloys improved significantly, which was responsible for both wear rate and corrosion current decreasing obviously in the passive potential region during the wear-corrosion test.
關鍵字(中) ★ 磨耗腐蝕
★  鉛
★  鋁
關鍵字(英) ★ Al
★  corrosion
★  Pb
★  wear
論文目次 總目錄
謝誌……………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
摘要…………………………………………………………………..…Ⅱ
總目錄………………………………………………………………..…Ⅲ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………..…Ⅵ
表目錄………………………………………………………………..…Ⅸ
一、前言……………………………………………………………..…1
二、文獻回顧………………………………………………………..…3
2.1 金屬基複合材料之特性與發展……………………………..…3
2.2 金屬基複合材料之磨耗性質……………………………..……3
2.2.1 組成分類……………………………………………..…..3
2.2.2 影響磨耗特性之參數……………………………………4
2.2.3 磨耗機構…………………………………………………6
2.3金屬基複合材料之腐蝕性質………………………………..….8
2.3.1 伽凡尼腐蝕……………………………………………..10
2.3.2 間隙腐蝕……..…….…………………………………...10
2.4 電化學量測……………………………………………………11
2.4.1 極化原理…………………………………………..……11
2.4.2 混合電位原理……………………………………..……14
2.4.3 腐蝕速率之量測………….. ………………………...…15
2.5 磨耗腐蝕…………………………………………………....…15
三、實驗方法與步驟……………………………………………...….28
3.1 粉末性質與混合………………………………………………28
3.2 熱壓燒結………………………………………………………28
3.3 熱處理程序……………………………………………………29
3.4 緻密度與硬度量測……………………………………………30
3.4.1 緻密度量測………………………………………..……30
3.4.2 硬度試驗………………………………………..………30
3.5 微結構觀察……………………………………………………31
3.6 磨耗試驗………………………………………………………31
3.7 腐蝕試驗………………………………………………………31
3.8 磨耗腐蝕試驗…………………………………………………32
四、結果與討論………………………………………………………45
4.1 微結構及硬度分析……………………………………………45
4.1.1 AS與ASC合金……………..……….…………………45
4.1.2 AS-Pb合金………………….………..…………………47
4.1.3 ASC-Pb合金……………………………………………47
4.2 緻密度…………………………………………………………49
4.3 磨耗試驗…………………………………………..…………..49
4.4 腐蝕試驗………………………………………...…………….51
4.4.1 開路電位量測………………………………..…………51
4.4.2 Pb、Cu對腐蝕性質之影響…………………...………..51
4.4.3 熱處理之影響………………………………..…………52
4.5 磨耗腐蝕試驗…………………………………………...…….53
五、結論………………………………………………………………88
六、參考文獻…………………………………………………………89
圖目錄
圖2-1Schematic representation of asperity interaction…………….…19
圖2-2Physical interactions between abrasive particles and surfaces of materials………………………………………………………..19
圖2-3Mechanisms involved in tribochemical wear…………………..20
圖2-4Crack formation and propagation in surface fatique…………...20
圖2-5Weight loss of alloy 3004-H14 exposed 1 week in distilled water
and in solutions of various PH values……………………..…..21
圖2-6Anodic polarization curve for aluminum alloy 1100…………..22
圖2-7 Effect of chloride-ion activity on pitting potential of aluminum
1199 in NaCl solution…………………………………………22
圖2-8Crevice corrosion………………………………………………23
圖2-9氫離子在電極上還原作用造成濃度極化現象...…………….24
圖2-10 總極化過電壓與電流之關係圖………..……………………25
圖2-11 鋅在鹽酸中的電極動力示意圖……………………..………25
圖2-12 電化學反應測試示意圖…………..…………………………26
圖2-13 Electrochemical corrosive wear testing apparatus…..……….27
圖3-1實驗流程圖……………………………………………………34
圖3-2粉末粒徑分佈圖……………………………………………....35
圖3-3粉末X-Ray分析….…………….……………………………..37
圖3-4Al-Si二元合金相圖…………….……………………………..39
圖3-5Al-Cu二元合金相圖………………………………………….40
圖3-6熱壓設備示意圖………………………………………………41
圖3-7Block on ring 示意圖………………………………………....42
圖3-8腐蝕試驗示意圖………………………………………………43
圖3-9磨耗腐蝕試驗示意圖…………………………………………44
圖4-1Al-20Si合金熱壓後OM金相圖..….…………………………59
圖4-2Al-20Si-3Cu合金熱壓後,Al基地內散佈之Cu顆粒OM金相圖與linescan分析……………………..………………..…….60
圖4-3Al-20Si-3Cu合金經固溶處理後,Al基地內散佈之Cu顆粒OM金相圖…………………………………………………….61
圖4-4較細小之CuAl2介金屬顆粒固溶分解金相Mapping分析.…62
圖4-5ASC與ASC-Pb合金之180℃時效硬化曲線………………...63
圖4-6Al-20Si-3Cu合金固溶淬火後,Al基地內之析出相..…..…..64
圖4-7ASC合金固溶淬火後,CuAl2介金屬相與Si顆粒接觸位置相互擴散生成之三元介金屬相…………………………....…….65
圖4-8Al-Si-Cu介金屬相Mapping分析………….……………66
圖4-9Al-Pb二元合金相圖………...…………………………….…..67
圖4-10 AS-10Pb合金熱壓後Pb相之分布……………………...….68
圖4-11 ASC-10Pb合金經固溶處理後,CuAl2介金屬相之形態….69
圖4-12 CuAl2介金屬相與Pb之擴散分析.….………………….…..70
圖4-13 Al-20Si合金熱壓後,Si顆粒破裂之OM金相圖……...……71
圖4-14 荷重11.8N、磨耗速率0.24m/s(200rpm)條件下,各合金成份乾磨耗體積損失與磨耗距離之關係圖………………..……72
圖4-15 磨耗600公尺之SEM金相圖…………….…………………73
圖4-16 磨耗600公尺體積損失與合金硬度之關係圖……………...75
圖4-17 各合金成份於3.5wt%NaCl(pH=6.7)水溶液中之Tafel極化曲……………………………………………………………..76
圖4-18 於3.5wt%NaCl(pH=6.7)水溶液中,不同熱處理溫度之AS-Pb合金Tafel極化曲線………………………….………………78
圖4-19 AS-Pb合金經不同熱處理溫度後之Pb相析出分佈………79
圖4-20 Pb相析出細小增加Al、Pb接觸面積示意圖...……………..80
圖4-21 於3.5wt%NaCl(pH=6.7)水溶液中,施加不同電位下之磨耗腐蝕性質……………………………………………………..81
圖4-22 施加OCP+300mV電位下之磨耗腐蝕SEM金相圖………83
圖4-23 磨耗腐蝕生成物SEM金相圖………………………………85
圖4-24 腐蝕生成物Mapping分析…………………………………...86
表目錄
表2-1Standard emf series of metals………….………………………17
表2-2Galvanic Series for seawater…………………………………...18
表3-1合金代號與理論密度…………………………………………33
表4-1合金熱壓、固溶淬火與頂時效之硬度值表……………….…55
表4-2ASC與ASC-Pb合金,淬火後與達頂時效之硬度提升比例…55
表4-3各合金成份熱壓後之緻密度…………….…………………...56
表4-4各合金成份於3.5wt%NaCl(pH=6.7)水溶液中之OCP……....57
表4-5 各合金成份於3.5wt%NaCl(pH=6.7)水溶液中之腐蝕電位與腐
蝕電流…………………………………………………………57
表4-6 AS-Pb合金經不同熱處理後之腐蝕電位與腐蝕電流……….58
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指導教授 李勝隆(Sheng-long Lee) 審核日期 2001-6-15
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