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姓名 邱柏仁(Bo-Ren Chiou )  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 單槽連續進流回分式活性污泥系統溶氧控制之研究
(The study of DO control in a continuous-flow sequencing batch reactor)
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摘要(中) 連續流循序批分式活性污泥系統在自動監測控制系統之研究與發展上,主要係藉由鑑定硝化及脫硝終點ORP及pH特徵點發生的時機,達到即時控制(real-time control)好氧及缺氧操作相反應時間的目的,在節省操作時間及提高處理效率的目標上,已有相當的貢獻。然而現階段溶氧控制策略,概以固定曝氣方式進行,此等操作方式,並無法依系統生化反應狀態及微生物活性調整所需的曝氣量,易導致絲狀菌異常增殖、污泥膨化、放流水水質不佳等問題,而影響處理成效及造成操作上的困擾。因此本研究嘗試利用溶氧之質量平衡式,建立溶氧控制策略(固定溶氧控制與溶氧即時控制),期能藉由溶氧的控制達到減少曝氣量、縮短操作時間、提高處理效率與提高系統穩定性的目標。研究結果顯示,利用溶氧即時控制策略進行溶氧的控制,其操作結果放流水水質變動範圍較低,顯示有助於維持系統的穩定性。就去除率而言,雖然在程序的即時控制(判斷ORP、pH特徵點)之下,碳、氮、磷的去除率可達一定水準,然而在加入溶氧即時控制後,有助於維持去除率在93 % 以上。在曝氣的使用方面,在溶氧即時控制操作下,平均去除單位體積( L )的曝氣用量為26.67 L,較固定曝氣量操作時減少10 % ~ 40 %的曝氣用量。在溶氧即時控制過程中,計算所得的攝氧率則可作為評估系統好氧相操作時微生物活性的指標。此外,針對一利用判斷ORP、pH曲線特徵點作即時控制之連續流SBR系統,溶氧即時控制有助於消弭接近硝化終點時,因溶氧突增所造成的特徵點消失、延緩轉相時間的問題。
摘要(英) As a simple and compact wastewater treatment system, the continuous-flow sequencing batch reactor (continuous-flow SBR) is capable of removing the oxygen-demanding carbonaceous materials, nitrogen and phosphorus biological nutrients by cycling with anaerobic, aerobic, anoxic, settling and discharge phases. Since the ORP and pH have been recognized as more flexible and efficient monitoring and control parameters on biological and chemical treatment processes, particularly applied to the biological nutrient removal processes. The ORP and pH real-time control strategies of aerobic nitrification and anoxic denitrification phases had well developed for automation of continuous-flow SBR. However, continuous-flow SBR is usually controlled with fix-aeration approach, which is difficult to adjust the required DO conditions to influent loading variations and organisms activity, and always led to consume tremendous energy and resources for meeting the effluent standard. For achieving an objective of automation, the purpose of this study is to develop a DO real-time control strategy to increase operational performances and decrease the energy consumption. The study results revealed that the developed DO real-time control approach could increase the operational stability and efficiency. The COD, ammonia and phosphorus removal rate could maintain above 93%, and decrease about 10 ~ 40 % aeration requirements compared with conventional aeration approaches.
關鍵字(中) ★ 即時控制
★  單槽連續進流回分式活性污泥系統
★  攝氧率
★  溶氧控制
關鍵字(英) ★ continuous-flow sequencing batch reactor
論文目次 目錄
第一章 前言
1-1 研究緣起1
1-2 研究目的2
1-3 研究流程3
第二章 文獻回顧
2-1 生物除氮技術4
2-1-1 硝化作用5
2-1-2 硝化作用之影響因子7
2-1-3 脫硝作用14
2-1-4 脫硝作用之影響因子15
2-2 生物除磷技術16
2-2-1 生物除磷原理16
2-2-2 生物除磷之影響因子18
2-3 併同去氮除磷處理的衝突性21
2-4 SBR活性污泥處理系統22
2-4-1 連續批式活性污泥法之優點23
2-4-2 改良式單槽連續進流回分式活性污泥處理系統25
2-4-3 ORP之應用26
2-5 攝氧率與呼吸儀30
2-5-1 生物化學背景30
2-5-2 呼吸儀的重要性31
2-5-3 量測原理32
2-5-4 量測方法37
第三章 研究方法
3-1 研究設備39
3-1-1 改良式單槽連續進流回分式活性污泥處理系統40
3-1-2 研究單元設備41
3-2 實驗設計46
3-2-1 人工合成基質47
3-2-2 動態進流47
3-2-3 活性污泥48
3-2-4 即時控制48
3-2-5 控制策略52
3-2-6 實驗進行63
3-3 水質分析項目與設備64
3-3-1 實驗分析項目64
3-3-2 水質分析方法65
3-3-3 水質分析設備66
第四章 結果與討論
4-1 固定曝氣量實驗67
4-1-1 水質變動趨勢67
4-1-2 監測參數變動趨勢73
4-1-3 放流水水質與去除率74
4-1-4 單位體積處理時間與曝氣用量77
4-1-5 對好氧相即時控制特徵點判斷的影響77
4-1-6 對缺氧相操作時間之影響79
4-1-7 對污泥增殖量之影響79
4-2 固定溶氧實驗82
4-2-1 飽和溶氧量82
4-2-2 建立曝氣量與Kla關係式82
4-2-3 曝氣量改變頻率84
4-2-4 溶氧控制策略85
4-2-5 溶氧變化趨勢86
4-2-6 放流水水質與去除率86
4-2-7 單位體積處理時間與曝氣用量89
4-2-8 對好氧相即時控制特徵點判斷的影響90
4-2-9 對缺氧相操作時間之影響91
4-2-10 對污泥增殖量之影響91
4-3 溶氧即時控制實驗93
4-3-1 溶氧變化趨勢93
4-3-2 水質變化趨勢96
4-3-3 放流水水質與去除率98
4-3-4 單位體積操作時間與曝氣用量98
4-3-5 對好氧相即時控制特徵點判斷的影響100
4-3-6 對缺氧相操作時間之影響100
4-3-7 對污泥增殖量之影響102
4-3-8 第二階段溶氧目標值為1.0 mg/L104
4-4 綜合討論106
4.4.1 放流水水質與去除率106
4.4.2 單位體積操作時間與曝氣用量106
4.4.3 對好氧相即時控制特徵點判斷的影響107
4.4.4 對缺氧相操作時間之影響107
4.4.5 對污泥增殖量之影響107
第五章 結論與建議
5-1 結論109
5-2 建議110
參考文獻111
附錄121
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林瑩峰、荊樹人、許菁珊、凌瓔玫、蔡永能,階梯入料對間歇曝氣回分批式活污泥系統脫氮除磷之影響,第二十二屆廢水處理技術研討會論文集,pp. 432-439,1997。
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鄭幸雄、周素圓、蔡宗岳,氣泡呼吸儀應用於石化廢水生物脫硝反應之特性研究,第二十二屆廢水處理技術研討會,557∼583
林以慈、郭文旭、劉俊清、林吉成、陳文卿,利用氣泡式呼吸儀進行污泥好氧消化之可行性評估研究,第二十屆廢水處理技術研討會,5-15∼5-23
指導教授 廖述良(Shu-Liang Liaw) 審核日期 2001-7-27
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