博碩士論文 88326020 詳細資訊




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姓名 紀凱獻(Kai-Hsien Chi )  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 北台灣大氣環境中戴奧辛濃度之分布特性研究
(Sampling and Analysis of Ambient Dioxins in Northern Taiwan)
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摘要(中) 政府自民國73年訂定「台灣地區垃圾處理方案」以來,即積極推動大型都市垃圾焚化廠的興建計畫,以期有效解決國內之垃圾問題。然而根據國內外研究結果顯示,垃圾焚化過程可能排放各種污染物質,包括汞、鉛、鎘、鉻、砷等重金屬及戴奧辛,其中戴奧辛由於對人體的危害甚鉅,最受世人重視。所以國內在推動大型垃圾焚化廠的興建計劃時,常遭民眾質疑將造成戴奧辛污染,因此遭受相當大的阻力。有鑑於此,本研究自民國88年11月起至民國89年7月,分四季針對台北某廢棄物焚化廠附近地區以及桃園縣境內背景濃度點,進行周界大氣中17種毒害最劇之PCDD/PCDF監測,以了解戴奧辛在台北及桃園地區大氣中的流佈,藉此釐清都市垃圾焚化廠所排放之戴奧辛對周圍空氣品質的影響潛勢,並了解大氣中戴奧辛之背景濃度。
根據四季監測結果顯示焚化廠周圍地區之大氣中平均戴奧辛毒性當量濃度以秋、冬季濃度(0.233 pg-TEQ/Nm3)較高,夏季濃度較低(0.106 pg-TEQ/Nm3)。冷季濃度較高之特性與歐美、日等國情況相似。若比較採樣期間各站之大氣中戴奧辛及空氣品質污染物濃度,可發現戴奧辛濃度與PM10及TSP濃度相關性頗佳。在物種分布方面,台北及桃園空品區中大氣的戴奧辛毒性當量濃度及物種分布相似,但焚化廠下風處之B測站周邊大氣中戴奧辛濃度較其他測站為高,上風處之A測站則最低。另外,根據本研究以ISCST3模式模擬台北某廢棄物焚化廠排放戴奧辛污染物擴散結果發現,在污染物濃度擴散值方面則存有相當之差距但在污染物擴散趨勢和實際大氣採樣結果相當吻合。此外,根據大氣參數敏感度測試結果發現戴奧辛污染物在大氣中之擴散受環境中之大氣混合層高度及大氣穩定度影響較大。而風速強弱之影響則是對位於污染源季節風向下風處之地區影響較大。
摘要(英) Taiwan government has implemented “The Wastes Management Plan in Taiwan Area”, prompting the construction and operation of 30 large-scale municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) islandwide to solve the emerging waste treatment problem since 1984. However, the results of relevant studies conducted in some developed countries indicate that the waste incineration process could possibly emit various pollutants including CO, acid gases, particulate matter and dioxins into the atmosphere. Because dioxin is a carcinogen and harmful to human’s immune and reproductive systems, the public places the most emphasis on it. So far Taiwan government suffers some resistance from the people living in the vicinity of proposed MWIs in some areas. To address this important issue, we focus on the understanding of dioxin concentration in the vicinity area of an existing MWI in Taipei and the background dioxin concentration in Taoyuan area by measuring 17 congeners of the most noxious PCDD/PCDF via seasonal samplings in this study.
The results obtained from all four seasons’ sampling indicate that the mean dioxin concentration in wintertime (0.233 pg-TEQ/Nm3) is significantly higher than that measured in summertime (0.106 pg-TEQ/Nm3). This trend is similar to the results obtained in other countries. In addition, the seasonal dioxin concentrations are compared with the ambient air quality data such as CO, NOx, SOx, PM10 and TSP sampled from Taipei area to gain better insights. It indicates that the variation of ambient dioxin concentrations is closely correlated with that of PM10 concentrations. With respective to the dioxin distribution, the results indicate that the TEQ concentration of ambient air in sampling site B (directly downwind of the MWI) is of the highest while the sampling site A (upwind of MWI) is of the lowest among all four sampling sites. This implies that existing MWI can be a significant contribution of dioxin in this area. Furthermore, the patterns of the dioxin congener distribution at five sampling sites (including the background site in Taoyuan) are quite similar.
In addition the USEPA Industrial Source Complex Short-Term Model (ISCST3) is used to predict the particle-bound dioxin concentration in ambient air in the vicinity of the MWI in Taipei. The results of simulation with ISCST3 reveal that the predicted concentrations are generally lower than the sampling ones, however, similar trends of dioxin dispersion are found in both sampling and model simulation. The sensitivity analysis of the model indicates that the dispersion of dioxin is mainly affected by atmospheric mixing height and stability. On the other hand, in the vicinity of downwind of MWI the dioxin dispersion is more affected by wind speed.
關鍵字(中) ★ 垃圾焚化爐
★  大氣
★  戴奧辛
★  採樣
關鍵字(英) ★ ambient
★  dioxin
★  ISC
★  MWI
★  TO9A
論文目次 目錄
摘要Ⅰ
ABSTACTII
目錄IV
表目錄VIII
圖目錄XII
第一章 前言1
1.1 研究緣起1
1.2 研究目的與範疇2
第二章 文獻回顧3
2.1戴奧辛之特性3
2.1.1 戴奧辛的基本性質與特徵3
2.1.2戴奧辛的毒理特性6
2.2 戴奧辛擴散濃度之模式推估11
2.3 大氣中戴奧辛之來源14
2.4 戴奧辛在大氣中的分布21
2.5 戴奧辛在大氣中之氣固相分布特性29
2.6 戴奧辛在大氣中的宿命34
第三章 研究方法37
3.1 研究流程設計37
3.1.1 採樣點的選擇37
3.1.2 採樣時間選擇46
3.1.3 採樣方法46
3.1.4 採樣之品保品管程序48
3.2 實驗藥品與試劑49
3.2.1 實驗藥品49
3.2.2實驗試劑50
3.3 實驗材料與設備50
3.3.1 實驗材料50
3.3.2 實驗設備52
3.4 分析方法52
3.4.1 樣品前處理53
3.4.2 樣品瓶之清洗程序57
3.4.3 分析儀器條件之設定62
3.5 ISC空氣品質模式的操作說明71
第四章 結果與討論74
4.1 四季大氣樣品採樣期間背景資料74
4.1.1採樣期間大氣氣象資料74
4.1.2台北地區空氣品質資料78
4.1.3桃園地區空氣品質資料80
4.2 四季大氣樣品分析結果81
4.2.1 各測站大氣中戴奧辛濃度之季變化81
4.2.2 大氣環境中各測站戴奧辛之物種變化101
4.2.3 空氣品質污染物與大氣中戴奧辛濃度之相關性118
4.3 ISC 模式模擬結果127
4.3.1 污染源資料127
4.3.2 受體點資料128
4.3.3氣象資料129
4.3.4 戴奧辛濃度擴散之季節變化133
4.3.5 模式模擬與實際採樣結果之比較135
4.3.6 氣象條件敏感度測試137
第五章 結論與建議146
5.1 結論146
5.2 建議148
第六章 參考文獻149
表目錄
表2-1 PCDD/F s同分異構物之分布與數量4
表2-2 戴奧辛之物化性質5
表2-3 PCDD/PCDFs 的半生期6
表2-4 2,3,7,8-TCDD對哺乳類動物之急毒性7
表2-5 戴奧辛各異構物之毒性當量係數8
表2-6 戴奧辛模式著地濃度推估與實際監測濃度之比較13
表2-7 美國境內各種不同來源戴奧辛之年排放量推估15
表2-8 英國境內各種不同來源戴奧辛之年排放量推估16
表2-9 荷蘭境內各種不同來源戴奧辛之年排放量推估17
表2-10 義大利境內各種不同來源戴奧辛之年排放量推估18
表2-11 日本PCDD/PCDF排放來源19
表2-12 戴奧辛各物種經由大氣傳輸而隨距離之衰減情況23
表2-13 歐美大陸型國家大氣中戴奧辛濃度分布24
表2-14海島型國家大氣中戴奧辛的濃度分布情形25
表2-15亞洲國家大氣中戴奧辛的濃度分布情形27
表2-16戴奧辛各物種在廢棄物焚化廠煙道排氣中之氣(V)固(P)相分布30
表2-17戴奧辛各物種在大氣中之氣(V)固(P)相分布31
表2-18戴奧辛各物種氣(V)固(P)相分布受大氣溫度之影響32
表2-19戴奧辛物種氣(V)固(P)相分布受大氣中粒狀物濃度影響33
表2-20大氣中戴奧辛各物種在不同粒徑粒狀物之分布34
表3-1 樹林焚化廠環境監測點模擬結果40
表3-2 台北測站民國87年氣象資料44
表3-3 台北測站民國88年氣象資料45
表3-4 台北測站民國89年氣象資料45
表3-5 時窗標準品流出順序(DB-5管柱)和層析管柱解析度標準品63
表3-6 PCDDs與PCDFs待測物與13C12-同位素標幟物一覽表64
表3-7 13C12-同位素標幟物組成及工作標準品溶液65
表3-8 起始檢量校正標準溶液組成一覽表66
表3-9 PCDDs/PCDFs待測物和13C12-同位素標幟物之監測離子 67
表3-10 PCDDs及PCDFs離子強度比之品管範圍69
表3-11 檢量校正相對感應因子品管限值70
表4-1 民國88年11月至89年8月B測站及中央氣象局台北測站 (88.10-12)氣象資料74
表4-2民國88年11月採樣期間中央氣象局台北測站氣象資料74
表4-3 B測站民國89年1月採樣期間測站氣象塔氣象資料75
表4-4 B測站民國89年4月採樣期間測站氣象塔氣象資料75
表4-5 B測站民國89年4月採樣期間測站氣象塔氣象資料75
表4-6 民國88年11月8日至11月11日台北地區各測站空氣品質78
表4-7 民國89年1月14日至1月15日台北地區各測站空氣品質78
表4-8 民國89年4月19日至4月20日台北地區各測站空氣品質78
表4-9 民國89年73日至7月4日月份台北地區各測站空氣品質79
表4-10 民國88年11月五權測站空氣品質80
表4-11 民國89年1月五權測站空氣品質80
表4-12 民國89年4月五權測站空氣品質80
表4-13民國89年7月五權測站空氣品質81
表4-14 民國88年11月各測站大氣戴奧辛濃度82
表4-15 民國89年1月各測站大氣戴奧辛濃度83
表4-16 民國89年4月各測站大氣戴奧辛濃度84
表4-17 民國89年7月各測站大氣戴奧辛濃度85
表4-18 各國大氣中戴奧辛濃度季節變化98
表4-19 北桃地區四季大氣中戴奧辛平均濃度分布100
表4-20 A測站大氣中戴奧辛物種分布特性103
表4-21 B測站大氣中戴奧辛物種分布特性104
表4-22 C測站大氣中戴奧辛物種分布特性105
表4-23 D測站大氣中戴奧辛物種分布特性106
表4-24 E測站大氣中戴奧辛物種分布特性107
表4-25廢棄物焚化廠鄰近地區主要污染源120
表4-26日本境內大氣中戴奧辛濃分布121
表4-27 焚化廠煙囪排氣特性127
表4-28 焚化廠戴奧辛排放特性127
表4-29 ISCST3模式中ME檔之參數129
表4-30 台北縣境內廢棄物焚化廠周遭地區大氣中戴奧辛採樣濃度與ISCST3模式模擬濃度之比較136
表4-31 焚化廠周遭地區扣除大氣中戴奧辛背景濃度後各敏感點採樣濃度與模式模擬濃度之百分差異137
表4-32 敏感度測試時所運用之大氣參數138
表4-33 敏感度測試時大氣參數之調整比例138
表4-34 A點之大氣參數敏感度測試統計結果139
表4-35 B點之大氣參數敏感度測試統計結果141
表4-36 C點之大氣參數敏感度測試統計結果142
表4-37 D點之大氣參數敏感度測試統計結果144
圖目錄
圖 2-1 PCDD/F之結構式3
圖2-2 ISC模式的運算流程12
圖2-3 煙囪排放源的環境宿命轉換關係36
圖 3-1 研究設計流程38
圖 3-2 PS-1採樣器示意圖39
圖3-3 廢棄物焚化廠模式模擬較高著地濃度位置41
圖 3-4 採樣點分布42
圖3-5 採樣作業流程47
圖3-6 戴奧辛分析流程55
圖3-7 戴奧辛樣品之萃取流程56
圖3-8 戴奧辛樣品酸洗流程58
圖3-9 酸性矽膠管柱淨化步驟59
圖3-10酸性氧化鋁管柱淨化流程60
圖3-11活性碳/矽藻土管柱淨化流程61
圖4-1民國88年10月至12月中央氣象局台北測站風花圖76
圖4-2民國89年1月至2月B測站氣象塔風花圖76
圖4-3民國89年3月至5月B測站氣象塔風花圖77
圖4-4民國89年6月至8月B測站氣象塔風花圖77
圖4-5 民國88年11月各測站大氣戴奧辛濃度86
圖4-6 民國88年11月各測站大氣戴奧辛毒性當量濃度87
圖4-7 民國89年1月各測站大氣戴奧辛濃度88
圖4-8 民國89年1月各測站大氣戴奧辛毒性當量濃度89
圖4-9 民國89年4月各測站大氣戴奧辛濃度90
圖4-10 民國89年4月各測站大氣戴奧辛毒性當量濃度91
圖4-11 民國89年7月各測站大氣戴奧辛濃度92
圖4-12 民國89年7月各測站大氣戴奧辛毒性當量濃度93
圖4-13 北桃地區四季大氣中戴奧辛平均濃度變化趨勢99
圖4-14 A測站大氣中戴奧辛濃度物種分布108
圖4-15 A測站大氣中戴奧辛毒性當量濃度物種分布圖109
圖4-16 B測站大氣中戴奧辛濃度物種分布圖110
圖4-17 B測站大氣中戴奧辛毒性當量濃度物種分布圖111
圖4-18 C測站大氣中戴奧辛濃度物種分布圖112
圖4-19 C測站大氣中戴奧辛毒性當量濃度物種分布圖113
圖4-20 D測站大氣中戴奧辛濃度物種分布圖114
圖4-21 D測站大氣中戴奧辛毒性當量濃度物種分布圖115
圖4-22 E測站大氣中戴奧辛濃度物種分布圖116
圖4-23 E測站大氣中戴奧辛毒性當量濃度物種分布圖117
圖4-24 廢棄物焚化廠鄰近地區主要污染源與本研究測站之相關位址120
圖4-25 A測站兩季大氣戴奧辛濃度與空氣品質污染物之變化趨勢122
圖4-26 B測站四季大氣中戴奧辛濃度與空氣品質污染物之變化趨勢123
圖4-27 C測站四季大氣中戴奧辛濃度與空氣品質污染物之變化趨勢124
圖4-28 D測站四季大氣中戴奧辛濃度與空氣品質污染物之變化趨勢125
圖4-29 E測站四季大氣中戴奧辛濃度與空氣品質污染物之變化趨勢126
圖4-30 台北地區污染源、敏感點分布位址及模擬範圍128
圖4-31 中央氣象局板橋測站民果88年11月至89年9月氣象資料130
圖4-32 中央氣象局板橋測站民國88年11月至89年9月風花圖131
圖4-33 ISC模式模擬廢棄物焚化廠污染源春季之戴奧辛地面平均濃度(pg/m3)分布133
圖4-34 ISC模式模擬廢棄物焚化廠污染源夏季之戴奧辛地面平均濃度(pg/m3)分布133
圖4-35 ISC模式模擬廢棄物焚化廠污染源秋季之戴奧辛地面平均濃度(pg/m3)分布134
圖4-36 ISC模式模擬廢棄物焚化廠污染源冬季之戴奧辛地面平均濃度(pg/m3)分布134
圖4-37 A點之大氣參數敏感度測試結果139
圖4-38 B點之大氣參數敏感度測試結果140
圖4-39 C點之大氣參數敏感度測試結果142
圖4-40 D點之大氣參數敏感度測試結果143
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指導教授 張木彬(Moo-Been Chang) 審核日期 2001-7-25
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