博碩士論文 88326022 詳細資訊




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姓名 石宜鑫(Yi-Xing Ch )  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 超細粒徑微粒濃縮器操作介面之改善與自動化之研究
(The Improvement and Automation of the Ultrafine Particle Concentrator)
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摘要(中) 超細粒徑微粒濃縮器(UFPC)是目前唯一可同時濃縮細粒徑與超細粒徑微粒之濃縮器,但原始系統之操作仍有許多不方便之處,例如人力耗費、溫度控制不易、濃縮效果不穩定、系統容易損害等。為了改進這些使用上的缺失,本研究已完成此微粒濃縮器操作介面之改善與自動化,包括:飽和蒸汽單元、乾燥系統及冷卻單元操作介面之改善;完成自動控制軟硬體之設計;系統濃縮效率之測試。目前系統可由電腦即時監測並紀錄系統溫濕度、流量、濃度等參數,並由電腦控制飽和蒸汽箱水溫與冷卻循環水之流量。而性能測試之結果發現溫度之控制相當穩定,但濃縮倍率之範圍約為5至16倍,與理論值22倍有所出入,其原因推測可能與空氣中的含水量有某種程度之相關。
本研究所改善完成之UFPC系統已具備長時間無人操作之能力,除了使用者在操作時更加方便之外,也有助於未來從事最佳操作參數探尋與可調整型濃縮倍率等之研究。
摘要(英) The Ultrafine Particle Concentrator (UFPC) developed by Dr. Sioutas at University of South California is the only device in current market that can concentrate both fine and ultrafine particles at the same time. Despite of its abilities to enrich particle concentrations, the original design of the UFPC, however, has many problems: The system requires many attentions because it was built around parts and modules that need to operate manually; The use of salt and ice to keep frozen temperature in the cooler once caused a corrosive tube that finally destroyed a pump and several valves; The UFPC can’t be continuously operated, because ice in the cooling tank must be changed after 3 or 4 hours operation.
The purpose of this study was to maximize the duration of each operation and to minimize the use of manpower while using the UFPC in studies that requires high concentration ambient particles. To achieve that, several new modules were built. A new saturator and a new cooler both based on close-loop-circulation design were constructed to extent the operation; A longer diffusion dryer was used to eliminate the excess water in the minor flow air; Temperature, relative humidity, and flow sensors were added to monitor conditions of the system; A Windows based software was designed to collect information from sensors and to control temperatures at desired levels in the saturator and the cooler. Several tests were conducted to verify the performances of the new of the UFPC. The results showed that the new system was able to continuously operate for hours. The only thing that stops the UFPC for a brief moment is to replace the drying column. The enrichment factors (EFs) tested with artificial and ambient particles were varied from 5 to 16 that theoretically should be 22. The collected data indicated that the EFs were highly correlated with relative humidity in the incoming air (r=0.8 to 0.9). The amounts of water in the air may have strong influences in the growth of particles that later decides whether the particle can be concentrated or not. Before other hard evidences can be found, this explanation, however, remains a guess.
關鍵字(中) ★ 微粒濃縮器
★  自動控制
關鍵字(英) ★ Ultrafine Particle Concentrator
論文目次 第一章 前言…………………………………………………………1
1.1研究緣起…………………………………………………………1
1.2研究目的與內容…………………………………………………3
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………4
2.1懸浮微粒之粒徑分佈與組成成分………………………………4
2.2懸浮微粒之健康風險評估………………………………………4
2.2.1微粒毒性流行病學之研究……………………………………5
2.2.2微粒毒性實驗…………………………………………………6
2.3微粒暴露之實驗方法……………………………………………7
2.3.1離心式微粒濃縮器……………………………………………8
2.3.2超細粒徑微粒濃縮器…………………………………………10
2.4自動控制…………………………………………………………13
2.4.1溫度感測器……………………………………………………14
2.4.2濕度感測器……………………………………………………17
2.4.3流量感測器…..………………………………………………20
第三章 系統設計與建造……………………………………………21
3.1 原始UFPC系統之介紹與初步功能測試……………………… 21
3.1.1 原始UFPC系統介紹………………………………………… 21
3.1.2 原始UFPC系統安裝測試…………………………………… 26
3.2 UFPC系統改善方案與內容…………………………………… 26
3.2.1冷卻系統改善…………………………………………………28
3.2.2飽和蒸氣系統改善……………………………………………30
3.2.3乾燥管改善……………………………………………………31
3.3自動控制系統之軟硬體設計……………………………………32
3.3.1感測器之選擇與設計…………………………………………32
3.3.1.1溫度感測器…………………………………………………33
3.3.1.2濕度感測器…………………………………………………35
3.3.1.3流量感測器…………………………………………………35
3.3.1.4凝結回流水水位……………………………………………36
3.3.1.5濃縮前後微粒之濃度測量…………………………………38
3.3.2自動控制設計…………………………………………………39
3.3.2.1飽和蒸汽箱溫度控制………………………………………39
3.3.2.2冷凝管冷卻效率控制………………………………………40
3.3.3控制介面卡之選擇……………………………………………40
3.3.4訊號線路整合…………………………………………………43
3.3.5控制軟體設計…………………………………………………45
3.3.6感測器訊號校正………………………………………………48
3.4系統整體性能測試………………………………………………50
3.4.1改善後之微粒濃縮系統單元性能測試………………………50
3.4.2微粒濃縮器性能測試…………………………………………51
第四章 系統測試結果與討論………………………………………54
4.1系統單元改善結果………………………………………………54
4.1.1冷卻器單元改善結果…………………………………………54
4.1.2飽和蒸汽單元改善結果………………………………………54
4.2 微粒濃縮器性能測試結果…………………………………… 55
4.2.1微粒產生系統性能測試結果…………………………………55
4.2.2微粒濃縮器性能測試結果……………………………………57
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………77
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指導教授 王鵬堯(Peng-Yau Wang) 審核日期 2001-7-16
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