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姓名 傅振瑞(Jen-Ruei FU)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 資訊管理學系
論文名稱 組織內資訊人員知識分享態度之研究-多層次分析模型方法
(Toward an Understanding of Knowledge Sharing within MIS departments- A Multilevel Analysis)
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摘要(中) 知識的創造與分享是組織持續競爭優勢的重要來源(Osterloh & Frey, 2000).。儘管先進的資訊與通訊科技增加了知識傳播的機會與潛力,有助於知識的分享,然而有價值的知識往往不容易被有效的分享。過去許多研究指出員工常常會拒絕與組織中的其他成員分享知識 (Ciborra & Patriota, 1998)。Spender and Grand (1996)指出儘管近年來組織越來越關注此一議題,相關之實徵研究進展仍十分有限。
本研究以資訊分享理論為基礎進行實徵研究,加入公平理論與組織學習的觀點,探討組織因素對於員工知識分享態度的影響,並從不同知識類型的角度來分析員工知識分享的態度。由於研究假說中同時牽涉到組織與個人的分析層級,本研究利用多層次模型(Multilevel Modeling)分析方法加以驗證。資訊分享理論從知識的特性出發,探討不同的知識類型對於知識分享態度的調和效果,強調員工對於不同資訊的型式抱持著不同的分享態度。本研究試圖延伸資訊分享理論,並加入新的組織情境變數,研究結果發現,在個人層次部分,組織的知識擁有權信念,與員工的自利與利他特質對於知識分享的傾向有顯著的影響,而自尊僅對內隱知識的分享傾向有顯著的影響。在組織層次部分,組織的心理安全氣候影響員工的知識分享傾向的假說得到支持,而分配公平與程序公平,則分別對於外顯與內隱知識有顯著的影響。資訊科技運用程度對於知識分享傾向的影響則未獲支持。在交互作用部分,本研究發現員工對於不同類型知識有不同的分享動機。本研究的結果,可以增進我們對於員工知識分享態度的了解。
摘要(英) Knowledge generation and transfer is an essential source of firms’ sustainable competitive advantage (Osterloh et al., 2000). Field studies in diverse settings indicate that employees frequently resist sharing their knowledge with the rest of the organization (Ciborra et al., 1998). Spender and Grand (1996) noted that despite recent interest in organizationally embedded knowledge, little progress has been made in understating how and why employees refuse to share what they know. Given the importance of knowledge sharing, scholars and practitioners would be interested in identifying antecedents that enhance/hinder knowledge sharing within the organization.
Built on theory of information sharing (Constant, Kiesler, & Sproull, 1994), equity theory (Adams, 1965) and organization learning perspective (Edmondson, 1999g), this study develops a theoretical conceptual model about factors that influence employees’ propensity to share knowledge. Because of the hierarchically nested data structure (i.e., organizational context and individuals), a multilevel model was constructed to examine how organizational climate, as well as individual’s social determinants, influence employee’s propensity to share knowledge. Specifically, we examine how the nature of knowledge moderates the relationship between social determinants and knowledge sharing propensity. Results indicate that beliefs of organizational ownership of knowledge, self-interest and altruism have significant effects on employees’ knowledge sharing propensity. Self-esteem is a significant predictor for knowledge sharing propensity only when the knowledge to be shared is tacit. On the organizational level, the effect of psychological safety climate on knowledge sharing propensity is significant. Furthermore, distributive justice climate has greater impact on employee’s sharing propensity of explicit knowledge than that of tacit knowledge. In contrast, procedural justice climate is more important than distributive justice climate in predicting individual’s propensity to share tacit knowledge. To our surprise, ICT utilization did not seem to be an important determinant for knowledge share propensity. Finally, the test of moderating effects provide supports that attitude toward knowledge sharing is moderated by the nature of knowledge shared. These findings and their implications are discussed.
關鍵字(中) ★ 知識分享
★ 資訊分享理論
★ 公平理論
★ 多層次模型
關鍵字(英) ★ theory of information sharing
★ equity theory
★ knowledge sharing
★ multilevel modeling
論文目次 論文題要 1
ABSTRACT I1
TABLE OF CONTENT 1V
TABLES VI1
FIGURES VII1
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH MOTIVATION 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM 3
1.3 PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY 3
1.4 OVERVIEW OF CHAPTERS 4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 DEFINITION AND DISTINCTION BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER 7
2.1.1 Knowledge Transfer 7
2.1.2 Knowledge sharing 8
2.2 SOCIAL RELATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING 9
2.2.1 Relational Models Theory 9
2.2.2 Knowledge Sharing and Social Relations 11
COMMUNAL SHARING 11
AUTHORITY RANKING 13
EQUALITY MATCHING 15
MARKET PRICING 16
2.2.3 A Brief Summary 20
2.3 SOCIAL EXCHANGE AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING 20
2.4 THEORY OF INFORMATION SHARING 22
2.4.1 Basic assumption 22
2.4.2 Theoretical framework 22
2.5 EQUITY THEORY 24
2.6 THE NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE 25
2.7 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING 27
2.8 ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE 28
2.8.1 Psychological Safety Climate 29
2.8.2 Justice Perception Climate 30
CHAPTER 3 MODEL DEVELOPMENT 32
3.1 BELIEFS OF ORGANIZATIONAL OWNERSHIP OF KNOWLEDGE 33
3.2 SELF-INTEREST 36
3.3 ALTRUISM 37
3.4 ORGANIZATION-BASED SELF-ESTEEM AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE SHARING 38
3.5 ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL ANTECEDENT: CLIMATE FOR JUSTICE PERCEPTION 40
3.6 ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL ANTECEDENT: ICT UTILIZATION 43
3.7 ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL ANTECEDENT: PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY CLIMATE 44
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHOD 46
4.1 DATA COLLECTION 46
4.2 MEASUREMENT OF CONSTRUCTS 46
DEPENDENT VARIABLE: 47
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: 49
GROUP-LEVEL VARIABLE: 49
INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL VARIABLE: 50
4.3 SCALE VALIDATION METHODS 50
4.4 STATISTICAL METHODS 51
4.4.1 Cross-Level Analysis 51
4.4.2 Method of Data Analysis 52
4.4.3 Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) 54
4.4.4 Structural Models for Multilevel Data 55
CHAPTER 5 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 57
5.1 SAMPLES 57
5.2 STABILITY OF DATA COLLECTION AND MANIPULATION CHECK 58
5.3 SCALE VALIDATION 64
5.4 HYPOTHESES TESTING 71
5.5 HIERARCHICAL LINEAR MODEL 71
5.5.1 The null model 72
5.5.2 Model Estimation 74
5.6 MULTILEVEL STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING 83
5.6.1 Structural analysis at the Individual Level 83
5.6.2 The NULL Model 86
5.6.3 Structural analysis at the organizational Level 88
5.7 THE NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE: TESTING OF MODERATING EFFECT 92
CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION 95
CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION 99
7.1 LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY 100
7.2 THEORETICAL CONTRIBUTIONS 101
7.3 IMPLICATION FOR PRACTITIONERS 102
REFERENCES 105
APPENDIX A. QUESTIONNAIRE 120
APPENDIX B. TOTAL COVARIANCE MATRIX 124
APPENDIX C. WITHIN-GROUP COVARIANCE MATRIX 126
APPENDIX D. BETWEEN-GROUP COVARIANCE MATRIX 128
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指導教授 范錚強(Cheng-Kiang Farn) 審核日期 2005-7-14
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