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姓名 陳志成(Zhi-Cheng Chen )  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 電機工程研究所
論文名稱 無轉軸偵測元件之無刷直流馬達驅動器研製
(Implementation of a Brushless DC motor without a Rotor Position Sensor)
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摘要(中) 無刷直流馬達具有高轉矩、高效率等良好特性,在伺服控制系統之應用愈來愈受重視。由於沒有整流子及碳刷,可高速運轉且避免維修,在自動化系統中,已逐漸取代直流馬達。然而無刷直流馬達驅動器需藉空間角以完成電子換相動作。一般需加裝轉軸偵測裝置如霍爾元件、光編碼器或解角器等,如此將降低電動機結構的強健性及增加系統成本。
本論文主要的目的是實現無刷直流馬達無轉軸偵測元件之驅動器研製,整個架構以數位訊號處理器為中心,藉回授電動機定子端之電壓及電流,偵測出轉子磁極所在位置,以完成估測轉速及提供換相訊號,再以此轉速估測值建立閉迴路之轉速控制系統。
論文中所提及之控制法皆由電腦輔助動態模擬系統Matlab分析設計,並藉由DSP實現無刷直流馬達無轉軸偵測元件之驅動器。
摘要(英) This paper describes a brushless dc motor without a rotor position sensor.It is to be provided with high torque and high
performance.And without rectification & carbon brush,avoid to keep in good repair.But brushless dc motor commutation with
hall sensor or encoder.
This paper implementation of a Brushless DC motor without a rotor position sensor.Feedback voltage and current to estimate rotor position.To estimate rotor speed and provide commutation signal.So to complete a close loop speed control system.
關鍵字(中) ★ 無刷直流馬達
★  無轉軸偵測元件
★  驅動器
關鍵字(英) ★ Brushless dc motor
★  Driver
★  Sensorless Control
論文目次 目錄
摘要..................................................I
目錄..................................................II
圖目錄................................................IV
表目錄................................................Ⅶ
第一章緒論
1.1研究動機.....................................1
1.2文獻回顧.....................................2
1.3章節組織與大綱...............................5
第二章無刷直流馬達介紹
2.1 簡介..............................................6
2.2 無刷直流馬達特點及應用............................7
2.3 無刷直流馬達之數學模式............................9
2.4 換相原理..........................................13
2.5 截波切換策略......................................19
第三章無轉軸偵測元件之無刷直流馬達控速系統
3.1 前言..............................................22
3.2 系統架構..........................................22
3.3 轉軸切換原理......................................24
3.4 起動策略..........................................29
第四章無轉軸偵測元件之驅動器研製
4.1 研究背景..........................................34
4.2 數位訊號處理單元..................................37
4.3 光耦合隔離驅動電路、換流器電路單元................41
4.4 切換開關與緩衝電路單元............................43
4.5 電流感測與濾波電路單元............................45
4.6 反電勢積分電路單元................................50
4.7 電源電路..........................................54
4.8 軟體流程圖........................................56
第五章模擬與實驗結果
5.1 前言..............................................59
5.2 模擬輔助系統之建立................................61
5.3 無刷直流馬達之模擬結果............................64
5.4 無轉軸偵測元件驅動器之實驗結果....................69
第六章結論.........................................74
參考資料..............................................R-1
圖目錄
圖2.1 無刷直流馬達構造圖..............................6
圖2.2 三相變頻器驅動無刷直流馬達之等效電路圖..........8
圖2.3 三相二極無刷直流馬達之示意圖....................9
圖2.4 無刷直流馬達之等效電路圖........................9
圖2.5 磁共能(co-energy)示意圖.........................12
圖2.6 霍爾元件........................................14
圖2.7 轉子磁極與霍爾元件關係圖........................15
圖2.8 反電動勢對切換開關訊號時序圖....................15
圖2.9 兩相導通及三相導通週期..........................17
圖2.10 兩相導通模式...................................18
圖2.11 換相模式.......................................18
圖2.12 典型截波.......................................19
圖2.13 上臂截波.......................................19
圖2.14 下臂截波.......................................20
圖2.15 混合截波.......................................20
圖3.1 無轉軸偵測元件之無刷直流馬達控速系統之完整方塊圖23
圖3.2 無刷直流馬達換流器及等效電路架構圖..............24
圖3.3 無刷直流馬達三相相電壓波形......................25
圖3.4 電壓偵測電路示意圖..............................27
圖3.5 A相端電壓與比較器輸出方波之關係圖...............27
圖3.6 積分器輸入與輸出之關係圖........................28
圖3.7 積分器輸出與比較器輸出之關係圖..................28
圖3.8 馬達起動及開閉迴路銜接方塊圖....................32
圖3.9 開迴路與閉迴路銜接測試訊號關係示意圖............33
圖4.1 無轉軸偵測元件無刷直流馬達驅動系統之硬體架構圖..35
圖4.2 市售的TMS320F240晶片控制板......................38
圖4.3 F240晶片內部控制單元............................38
圖4.4 換流器電路單元..................................41
圖4.5 M57957L之方塊圖.................................42
圖4.6 三相變頻器之切換開關............................43
圖4.7 電壓型開關緩衝(Snubber)電路.....................44
圖4.8 電流感測與濾波電路..............................45
圖4.9 二階低通濾波器..................................46
圖4.10 二階低通濾波器(單一增益法).....................47
圖4.11 二階低通濾波器(等值元件法).....................48
圖4.12 不同 值時,二階低通濾波器之振幅(dB)............48
圖4.13 反電動勢積分電路...............................50
圖4.14 LM311與提升電阻R1示意圖.......................51
圖4.15 積分器.........................................52
圖4.16 —12V ~ +12V電源...............................54
圖4.17 —9V ~ +15V電源................................54
圖4.18 +27V電源.......................................55
圖4.19 +5V電源........................................55
圖4.20 起動控制程式流程...............................57
圖4.21 換相、速度調整控制之流程圖.....................58
圖5.1 無刷直流馬達模擬控速方塊圖......................61
圖5.2 無刷直流馬達數學模型方塊圖......................62
圖5.3 馬達控制方塊之內部架構..........................63
圖5.4 PI速度控制模擬方塊圖............................63
圖5.5 馬達速度響應圖(a)無載(b)加載0.3牛頓-公尺....66
圖5.6 命令轉速500rpm時,轉子磁極位置與其換相區間關係圖(a)無載(b)加載0.3牛頓-公尺.................................67
圖5.7 命令轉速500rpm時,馬達之轉矩響應及直流鏈電流關係圖(a)無載(b)加載0.3牛頓-公尺...............................68
圖5.8 轉軸感測訊號與換相訊號之關係圖..................70
圖5.9 反電勢積分電路各節點之相關波形..................70
圖5.10 換相訊號與換相區間關係圖.......................71
圖5.11 開迴路與閉迴路銜接關係圖.......................72
圖5.12 馬達速度響應圖(a)無載(b)加載0.3牛頓-公尺...73
表目錄
表1-1 轉軸轉速估測方式……………………………………………3
表2-1 位置霍爾元件與切換開關訊號對照表………………………16
表3-1 換相序列………………………………………………………29
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指導教授 徐國鎧(Kuo-Kai Shyu) 審核日期 2001-7-7
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