博碩士論文 89229005 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:4 、訪客IP:34.204.203.142
姓名 游大立(Dah-Lih You)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 天文研究所
論文名稱 小行星對於地球原始海水的貢獻
(The Contribution of Asteroids to the Primordial Terrestrial Ocean)
相關論文
★ 土衛六「泰坦」離子球層的化學-動力學模型★ KBOs星體碰撞與生命及行星大氣起源
★ 行星狀星雲形態之多光譜波段觀測★ 木衛一埃歐鈉雲噴流之結構與時間變化
★ 早期太陽系系統中KBOs的形成與碰撞演化★ 彗星2001A2 (LINEAR)的光度觀測
★ SDSS之RR Lyrae候選變星之確認觀測★ 銀河系核心及盤面的隨機恆星形成歷史
★ 宇宙射線中的氦原子核能譜★ 行星狀星雲Hα結構之分析
★ 在星系團中的相對論性電子和SZ效應★ 重力透鏡和交互作用星系的資料探勘
★ 在疏散星團中尋找系外行星與變星★ 原恆星吸積盤動態模擬與氣體固態粒子作用初步探討
★ 大型EKBO(Quaoar, Ixion, 2004DW)的自轉週期和表面顏色的測量★ 利用反投影法研究SN1006之宇宙射線加速機制
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 地球生命的起源一般相信是源自地球的海洋,因此海洋的起源成為生命起源的根本問題。太陽系內的彗星、小行星及地球吸積過程中所獲得的水,均可能是地球海水的來源。其中源自小行星帶共振區的小行星,可能是重要的來源物質。
使用SWIFT (Levison & Duncan 1994) 的RMVS 3 (Regularied Mixed Variable Sympletic 3) 程式直接積分 (direct integration) 計算大約一萬顆分佈於小行星帶中可能的近地小行星來源中介區 (intermediate source),積分計算100 Myr (106年)。經由統計各來源區小行星對於類地行星 (僅計算金星、地球及火星) 的撞擊機率,估計小行星帶物質在太陽系行星系統形成之初,小行星帶物質對於地球及類地行星原始海洋可能的貢獻。
計算結果顯示源自內小行星帶共振區的原始小行星在地球形成後,大約可以提供一倍至數十倍現今海水質量的水至地球。原始太陽星雲的初條件的設定對於小行星帶物質的貢獻影響非常敏感。
綜合D/H值證據,研究結果傾向支持小行星對於地球原始海洋的貢獻較彗星來得重要。而原始地球在吸積形成過程中,也可能未完全將水等揮發物質完全盡空。因此原始地球對於地球海水的貢獻也不可忽略。
摘要(英) Direct integration method using the SWIFT RMVS3 (Regularized Mixed Variable Sympletic 3) code has been used to investigate the long-term (~ 100 Myr) orbital evolution of about 10 thousand test particles originally distributed in the asteroid belt. This is to provide statistical estimates of the collisional probabilities against surface impacts with Mars, Earth and Venus by strary bodies ejected from such intermediate source region of the Near-Earth asteroids. The major goal is to investigate the potential contributions to the primordial oceans of the terrestrial planets from the asteroidal objects.
Our calculations suggest that Earth could in principle gained between one to a few tens of the present oceanic water from asteroidal impact. But the exact value depends sensitively on the assumption of the initial mass distribution in the solar nebula.
When compared with the isotope ratios of D/H of the Standard Mean Oceanic Water (SMOW), the cometary water and primitive meteorites, it is concluded that asteroids should be a more important source of oceanic water than comets. But water contained in the Earth’s interior could also make significant contribution.
關鍵字(中) ★ 地球海洋
★ 起源
★ 小行星
★ 軌道演化
關鍵字(英) ★ asteroid
★ orbital evolution
★ terrestrial ocean
★ origin
論文目次 1 緒論 1
1.1 地球海洋的重要性及起源問題 2
1.2 前人關於地球海洋來源的研究 3
1.3 粒子的軌道動力演化計算 7
1.4 小行星帶天體對於地球海水來源的貢獻 11
2 研究方法 15
2.1 粒子軌道長周期積分計算 (SWIFT) 15
2.2 粒子模擬計算的初始條件 18
2.3 初始小行星帶的質量分佈 20
2.4 來源地區的物質的水含量的設定 22
3 結果 23
3.1 各來源區的動力學特性 23
3.2 各來源區對於近地小行星(NEAs)的貢獻 31
3.3 小行星對於地球原始海水的貢獻 57
4 討論與未來展望 63
4.1 結論 63
4.2 未來展望 64
5 參考文獻 66
參考文獻 1、 Arnold, J. R. (1965) The origin of meteorites as small bodies. II. The model. Ap. J. 141, 1536-1547.
2、 Benz, W. & Cameron, A. G. W. (1990) Terrestrial effects of the giant impact. Origin of the Earth (H. E. Newsom & J. H. Jones, ed.), pp. 61-68.
3、 Boynton, W. V., & Feldman, W. C., & Squyres, S. W., & Prettyman, T. H., & Brückner, J., & Evans, L. G., & Reedy, R. C., & Starr, R., & Arnold, J. R., & Drake, D. M., & Englert, P. A. J., & Metzger, A. E., & Mitrofanov, Igor, & Trombka, J. I., & d'Uston, C., & Wänke, H., & Gasnault, O., & Hamara, D. K., & Janes, D. M., & Marcialis, R. L., & Maurice, S., & Mikheeva, I., & Taylor, G. J., & Tokar, R., & Shinohara, C. (2002) Distribution of Hydrogen in the Near Surface of Mars: Evidence for Subsurface Ice Deposits. Science 297, 81-85.
4、 Bockelée-Marvan, D., & Gautier, D., & Lis, D. C., & Young, K., & Keene, J., & Philips, T., & Owen, T., & Crovisier, J., & Glodsmith, P. F., & Bergin, E. A., & Despois, D., & Wootten, A. (1998) Deuterated Water in Comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) and Its Implications for the Origin of Comets. Icarus 133, 147-162.
5、 Bottke, W. F., Jr., & Jedicke, R., & Morbidelli, A., & Petit, J.-M., & Gladman, B. (2000) Understanding the Distribution of Near-Earth Asteroids. Science 288, 2190-2194.
6、 Bottke, W. F., Jr., & Morbidelli, A., & Jedicke, R., & Petit, J.-M., & Levison, H. F., & Michel, P. (2002) Debiased Orbital and Absolute Magnitude Distribution of the Near-Earth Objects. Icarus 156, 399-433.
7、 Chapman, C. R. (1996) S-type asteroids, ordinary chondrites, and space weathering: The evidence from Galileo’s fly-bys of Gaspra and Ida. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 31, 699-725.
8、 Chyba, C. F. (1990) Impact delivery and erosion of planetary oceans in the early inner solar system. Nature 343, 129-133.
9、 Dauphas, N, & Robert, F., & Marty, B. (2000) The Late Asteroidal and Cometary Bombardment of Earth as Record in Water Deuterium to Protium Ratio. Icarus 148, 508-512.
10、 Deloule, E., & Robert, F., & Doukhan, J. C. (1998) Interstellar hydroxyl in meteoritic chondrules: Implications for the origin of water in the inner solar system. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 62, 3367-3378.
11、 Delsemme, A. H. (1999) The deuterium enrichment observed in recent comets is consistent with the cometary origin of sea water. Planetary & Space Science 47, 125-131.
12、 Duncan, M. J., & Levison, H. F., & Lee, M. H. (1998) A Multiple Time Step Symplectic Algorithm for Integrating Close Encounters. AJ 116, 2067-2077.
13、 Eberhardt, P., Reber, M., & Krankowsky, D., & Hodges, R. R. (1995) The D/H and 18O/16O ratios in water from comet P/Halley. Astron. Astropys. 302, 301-316.
14、 Feierberg, M. A., & Lebofsky, L. A., & Larson, H. P. (1981) Spectroscopic evidence for aqueous alteration products on the surfaces of low-albedo asteroids. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 45, 971-981.
15、 Feldman, W. C., & Boynton, W. V., & Tokar, R. L., & Prettyman, T. H., & Gasnault, O., & Squyres, S. W., & Elphic, R. C., & Lawrence, D. J., & Lawson, S. L., & Maurice, S., McKinney, G. W., & Moore, K. R., & Reedy, R. C. (2002) Global Distribution of Neutrons from Mars: Results from Mars Odyssey. Science 297, 75-78.
16、 Gauthier, D., & Owen, T. C. (1989), The composition of outer planet atmospheres. Origin and Evolution of Planetary and Satellite Atmospheres. Atreya, S. K., et al., (Eds.), University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 487-512 pp..
17、 Gladman, B. J., & Migliorini, F., & Morbidelli, A., & Zappalà, V., & Michel, P., & Cellino, A., & Foreschlé, C., & Levison, H. F., Bailey, M., & Duncan, M. (1997) Dynamical Lifetime of Objects Injected into Asteroid Belt Resonances. Science 277, 197-201.
18、 Gradie, J. C., & Tedesco, E. F. (1982) Compositional structure of the asteroid belt. Science 216, 1405-1407.
19、 Gradie, J. C., & Chapman, C. R., & Tedesco, E. F. (1989) Distribution of taxonomic classes and the compositional structure of the asteroid belt. Asteroids II (R. P. Binzel et al., ed.), pp. 316-335.
20、 Hagemann, R., & Nief, G., & Roth, E. (1970) Absolute Isotopic Scale for Deuterium Analysis of Natural Waters. Absolute D/H ratio for SMOW. Tellus 22, 712
21、 Ip, W.-H., & Fernandez, J. A. (1988) Exchange of condensed matter among the outer and terrestrial protoplanets and the effect on surface impact and atmospheric accretion. Icarus, 74, 47-61.
22、 Kerridge, J. F. (1985) Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in carbonaceous chondrites: A bundances and isotopic compositions in bulk samples. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 49, 1707-1714.
23、 Lecar, M, & Franklin, F. A., & Holman, M. J., & Murray, N. W. (2001) Chaos in the Solar System. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys 39, 581-631.
24、 Levin, B. J. (1972) Origin of the Earth. The Upper Mantle (A. R. Ritsema, ed.), pp. 7-30. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
25、 Levison, Hal’s homepage: http://www.boulder.swri.edu/~hal/swift.html
26、 Levison, H. F., & Duncan, M. J. (1994) The long-term dynamical behavior of short-period comets. Icarus, 108, 18-36.
27、 Mason, B. (1971) The carbonaceous chondrites – a selective review. Meteoritics 6, 59-70
28、 Meier, R., & Owen, T. C., & Matthews, H. E., & Jewitt, D. C., & Bockelée-Marvan, D., & Crovisier, J., & Gautier, D. (1998) A Determination of the HDO/H2O Ratio in Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Science 279, 842-844.
29、 Meier, R., & Owen, T. C., (1999) Cometary Deuterium. Space Science Rev. 90, 33-43.
30、 Melosh, H. J. (1990) Giant impact and the thermal state of the early Earth. Origin of the Earth (H. E. Newsom & J. H. Jones, ed.), pp. 69-83.
31、 Mitrofanov, I., & Anfimov, D., & Kozyrev, A., & Litvak, M., & Sanin, A., & Tret'yakov, V., & Krylov, A., & Shvetsov, V., & Boynton, W., & Shinohara, C., & Hamara, D., & Saunders, R. S. (2002) Maps of Subsurface Hydrogen from the High Energy Neutron Detector, Mars Odyssey. Science 297, 78-81.
32、 Morbidelli, A., & Chambers, J., & Lunine, J. I.,& Petit, J. M., & Robert, F., & Valsecchi, G. B., & Cyr, K. E. (2000) Source regions and time scales for the delivery of water to Earth. M&PS, 35:6, 1309-1320.
33、 Newman, W. J., & Symbalisty, E. M. D., & Ahrens, T. J., & Jones, E. M. (1999) Impact Erosion of Planetary Atmospheres: Some Surprising Results. Icarus 138, 224-240.
34、 Öpik, E. J., 1976, Interplanetary Encounters: Close-Range Gravitational Interactions. Elsevier Press, New York, New York, USA. 1-155 pp.
35、 Weidenschilling, S. J. (1977) The distribution of mass in the planetary system and Solar nebula. Astro. & Space Sci. 51, 153-158.
36、 Wiik, H. B. (1856) The chemical composition of some stony meteorites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 9, 279-289.
37、 Williams, Darren's homepage, revised SWIFT named swift_v3, http://shahrazad.bd.psu.edu/Williams/faculty_williams.html. Note that this package is not presented in his web page, but still available at the following address, http://shahrazad.bd.psu.edu/Williams/swift_v3.tar.
38、 Wisdom, J (1982) The origin of the Kirkwood gaps - A mapping for asteroidal motion near the 3/1 commensurability. Astron. J. 82, 577-593
39、 Wisdom, J. (1983) Chaotic behavior and the origin of the 3/1 Kirkwood gap. Icarus 56, 51-74.
40、 Wisdom, J. (1985) A perturbative treatment of motion near the 3/1 commensurability. Icarus 63, 272-289.
41、 Wisdom, J., and Holman, M. (1991) Symplectic maps for the N-body integrators. Astron. J. 102, 1528-1538.
指導教授 葉永烜(Wing-Huen Ip) 審核日期 2003-7-2
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明