博碩士論文 89323040 詳細資訊




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姓名 張顧耀(Guh-Yaw Jang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 機械工程學系
論文名稱 銅導線上鍍金或鎳/金對遷移性之影響及鍍金層對Sn-0.7Cu與In-48Sn BGA銲料迴銲後之接點強度影響
(Effect of Au and Ni/Au coatings on the electrolytic migration of Cu-conductors, and effect of Au coatings on joint strength of BGA for Sn-0.7Cu and In-48Sn solder after reflow)
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摘要(中) 本論文在探討銅導線上鍍金或鎳/金對遷移性之影響及鍍金層對Sn-0.7Cu與In-48Sn BGA銲料迴銲後之接點強度影響。銅導線表面電鍍0.1 ~ 1.0 µm金後,分別在蒸餾水、0.01M NaCl及(NH4)2SO4水溶液中,施以5V偏壓,進行遷移研究。結果顯示:表層鍍金之銅導線,具有抑制銅遷移之效果。此鍍金銅導線在250°C持溫300秒後,在較低偏壓情況下,抗遷移性顯著增強;在較高偏壓情況下,熱處理降低鍍金0.1 µm之銅導線的遷移阻抗,當鍍金厚度大於0.5 µm時,則沒有影響。
銅導線表面電鍍5 µm鎳後,隨即電鍍0.1 ~ 1.0 µm金,之後在蒸餾水及(NH4)2SO4水溶液中,施以5V偏壓,進行遷移研究。結果顯示:表層鍍鎳/金之銅導線,同樣具有抑制銅遷移之效果。但此鍍鎳/金銅導線在250°C持溫300秒後,抗遷移性顯著減弱。
在0.01M (NH4)2SO4水溶液中進行陽極動態極化掃描及定電位陽極反應,配合ESCA表面分析,得知金在(NH4)2SO4水溶液中不會發生反應,因此金及鎳/金鍍層能夠有效地抑制銅遷移。
為了探討金層對於BGA銲接點強度影響,先在鍍鎳(5µm)銅銲墊上電鍍0.1 ~ 1.2 µm金層,再分別與Sn-37Pb、Sn-0.7Cu及In-48Sn銲球進行迴銲,迴銲後即進行剪力量測,結果顯示:隨著金鍍層愈厚,Sn-37Pb銲料的強度愈差,而Sn-0.7Cu及In-48Sn銲料的強度則些微增強。
摘要(英) Effects of Au and Ni/Au coatings on the electrolytic migration of copper conductors have been studied. The migration of the copper conductors in dionized water, 0.01M NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 solutions at a bias of 5V was inhibited by coating a layer of Au in thickness of 0.1 ~ 1.0 μm. When Au-coated copper conductors are under a lower bias (e.g. < 0.5VSCE), heat treatment (at 250 ℃ for 300 seconds) enhances the migration resistance. To the opposite, under a higher bias (e.g. > 1.4VSCE), heat treatment diminishes the migration resistance for the specimen coated with only 0.1 μm Au, but causes no influence with the thickness of Au-coats greater than 0.5 μm.
The migration inhibition is more efficient with increasing thickness of the Au-coats from 0.1 to 1.0 μm in the case of Ni/Au-coated copper conductors. However, it is less efficient when the Ni/Au-coated conductors have been heat-treated at 250 ℃ for 300 seconds.
Electrochemical polarization such as potentiodynamic and potentiostatic experiments were conducted. The ESCA analysis for the anode indicates that gold is un-reactive for Au-coated copper conductors and Ni/Au-coated copper conductors in the 0.01M (NH4)2SO4 solution.
Effect of Au coatings on joint strength of ball grid array (BGA) estimated by conducting the shear test of the soldered system where Sn-37Pb, Sn-0.7Cu and In-48Sn solders have been reflowed, respectively, onto the Au-deposited Ni/Cu pads. The thickness of Au-deposits is ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 µm and that for Ni-coat is 5µm. The Sn-37Pb alloy had a slight decrement in ball shear strength with increasing the thickness of gold coat from 0.1 μm to 1.0 μm. The strength however was degraded drastically while the gold coat is 1.2 μm. On the other hand, the two lead free systems had a slight increment in ball shear strength with increasing the thickness of gold coat.
關鍵字(中) ★ 銅電解質遷移
★ 鍍金銅導線
★ 鍍鎳/金銅導線
★ 陽極極化
★ Sn-0.7Cu銲料
★ In-48Sn銲料
★ 剪應力強度
關鍵字(英) ★ anodic polarization
★ Ni/Au-coated copper conductors
★ Au-coated copper conductors
★ copper electrolytic migration
★ shear strength
★ Sn-0.7Cu solder
★ In-48Sn solder
論文目次 Chinese Abstract (中文摘要) I
Abstract II
Acknowledgement IV
Contents V
List of Tables X
List of Figures XI
Chapter I Introduction 1
1-1 Effect of Au and Ni/Au coatings on the electrolytic migration of copper conductors 1
1-2 Effect of Ni/Au surface finish on joint strength of BGA 3
Chapter II Literature Review and Theoretical Aspects 6
2-1 Metallic Migration 6
2-1-1 Types of metallic migration 6
2-1-2 Parameters influence on the electrolytic migration 7
2-1-3 Electrolytic migration process 9
2-2 Migration of copper 11
2-3 Corrosion behavior of copper 13
2-4 Oxidation behavior of nickel 14
2-5 Noble characteristic of gold 16
2-6 Reaction of Pb-Sn solder with Ni/Au metallization 17
2-7 Reaction of Lead-free solder with Ni/Au metallization 18
2-7-1 Reaction of Sn-0.7Cu solder with Ni/Au metallization 18
2-7-2 Reaction between In-48Sn solder with Ni/Au metallization 20
Chapter III Materials and Experimetal Procedures 22
3-1 Preparation of specimens 22
3-2 Electroplating and heat treatment of the specimens 23
3-2-1 Au-electroplated and heat treatment of the Au-coated copper conductor 23
3-2-2 Ni/Au-electroplated and heat treatment of the Ni/Au-coated copper conductor 26
3-3 Electrolytic equipments 29
3-3-1 Electrolytic cells and the electrodes 29
3-3-2 Environments of the electrolytic migration testing 30
3-4 Experimental method and operating conditions 31
3-4-1 Electrolytic migration testing 31
3-4-2 Anodic polarization of the conductors in 0.01M (NH4)2SO4 solution 32
3-5 Analysis of the conductors and their reaction products 32
3-6 Shear testing for solder joint between solder ball and BGA substrate 33
3-6-1 Samples preparation 33
3-6-2 Soldering 34
3-6-3 Shear testing 32
Chapter IV Results 36
4-1 Gold-Coated Copper Conductors 36
4-1-1 Surface morphology for the Au-coated copper conductors 36
4-1-2 Effect of the heat treatment on the X-ray diffraction patterns for the Au-coated copper conductors 37
4-1-3 Effect of heat treatment on the SEM cross-sectional structure of the Ni/Au-coated copper conductors 38
4-1-4 Measurement of bridging current for the Au-coated copper conductors 40
4-1-5 The in-situ observation of electrolytic migration for the Au-coated copper conductors 44
4-2 Nickel/Gold-Coated Copper Conductors 48
4-2-1 Surface morphology for the Ni/Au-coated copper conductors 48
4-2-2 Effect of the heat treatment on the X-ray diffraction patterns for the Ni/Au-coated copper conductors 48
4-2-3 Effect of heat treatment on the SEM cross-sectional structure of the Ni/Au-coated copper conductors 50
4-2-4 Measurement of bridging current for the Ni/Au-coated copper conductors 51
4-2-5 The in-situ observation of electrolytic migration for the Ni-coated and Ni/Au-coated copper conductors 55
4-3 Effect of Au coatings on joint strength of BGA after reflow 61
4-3-1 Microstructure of as-bonded solder ball 61
4-3-2 Effect of Au-coat on solder ball joint strength 63
Chapter V Discussion 64
5-1 Gold-Coated Copper Conductors 64
5-1-1 Anodic potentiodynamic polarization of the bare copper conductors in different concentration (NH4)2SO4 solution 64
5-1-2 Comparison for the anodic potentiodynamic polarization for copper conductors coated with gold in different thickness 65
5-1-3 Anodic potentiodynamic polarization of the Au-coated copper conductors in 0.01M (NH4)2SO4 solution 66
5-1-4 Anodic current at constant potentials for Au-coated copper conductors in 0.01M (NH4)2SO4 solution 71
5-1-5 ESCA analysis of the reaction products on the anode 73
5-2 Nickel/Gold-Coated Copper Conductors 78
5-2-1 Comparison for the anodic potentiodynamic polarization of Ni/Au-coated copper conductors with different thickness of gold coats 78
5-2-2 Anodic potentiodynamic polarization of the Ni/Au-coated copper conductors in 0.01M (NH4)2SO4 solution 79
5-2-3 Anodic current at constant potentials for Ni/Au-coated copper conductors in 0.01M (NH4)2SO4 solution 82
5-2-4 ESCA analysis of the reaction products on the anode 83
Chapter VI Conclusions 87
References 88
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指導教授 林景崎(Jing-Chie Lin) 審核日期 2002-7-26
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