博碩士論文 89326014 詳細資訊




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姓名 鄭欽仁(Chin-Jen Chang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 下水污泥灰發泡混凝土之輕質化與隔熱特性研究
(Investigating the lightweight characterization and heat-insulating efficiency of foaming concrete made of sewage sludge ash)
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摘要(中) 摘要
台灣地區因衛生下水道平均普及率僅6.5%,政府乃積極提出「污水下水道發展方案」,預計2003年將日產180,000m3污泥,如此龐大污泥的處理與處置,將形成環保上棘手且迫切的問題。本研究基於廢棄物資源化之目的,以八里初級污水處理廠與台北市民生二級污水處理廠之下水污泥焚化灰渣為主體材料,添加水泥及金屬發泡劑產生發泡反應,以拌製污泥灰發泡混凝土。針對材料之物理性質及化學組成,探討污泥灰料源對於發泡混凝土之產製配比、輕質化與熱傳等工程性能,以及微觀組織之影響;並以鋁粉與廢五金粉做為金屬發泡劑,比較二者對發泡特性之影響。最後,綜合評估污泥灰發泡混凝土之反應機制、輕質化與隔熱性能受配比變數之影響程度與關聯性,並提出使用策略與建議。
由研究結果顯示,就高分子系污泥而言,初級廠污泥之灰份高於二級廠污泥,而其含水率則呈相反,故初級廠污泥的灰渣製備較具經濟性;而初級廠及二級廠之污泥灰比表面積分別為4,657 m2/kg及10,193 m2/kg,污泥灰細度對漿體之工作性產生顯著影響;就污泥灰之化學組成而言,初級廠污泥灰之SiO2含量高於二級廠約19.82%,而P2O5含量前者低於後者約11.78%,其餘化學成分相近;初級廠污泥灰之卜作嵐活性高於二級廠污泥灰;污泥灰發泡混凝土之體比重低於1.2以下,符合輕質化之要求;而污泥灰發泡混凝土藉金屬發泡劑之發泡產氫反應,形成以大於1μm為主之多孔結構體,初級廠與二級廠之孔隙率分別為51.28 ~71.17%及53.62 ~72.54%,高孔隙率造成低熱傳導率,其熱傳導率分別為0.0880 ~0.2507 W/m-oK及0.0763 ~0.1510 W/m-oK。因此,就輕質化與隔熱性能而言,初級廠污泥灰劣於二級廠;但就經濟性而言,初級廠污泥灰優於二級廠。
摘要(英) Abstract
As the current percentage of the national population served by a sewer system in Taiwan is as low as 6.5%, a "National Development Sewer System Plan" has been launched, aimed at pushing forward sewer system development on the island. Pursuant to this development plan, it is estimated that by the years 2003 and 2009, the national average served by sewer systems should reach 15% and 33%, respectively, generating an estimated 180,000 m3/day and 400,000 m3/day of sewage sludge to be disposed of, which is expected to have significant impact on the environment. From the viewpoint of substantial waste management, zero-discharge for MSW incinerators, and the add value of the recovery of waste for green products, the resource and recovery of sewage sludge ash, for producing lightweight foaming concrete,should be a feasible and novel alternative.
This study investigates the feasibility of producing foaming concrete as an insulator, using sewage sludge ash as a main component, and evaluates its heat-insulating efficiency. The work focuses on the characterization of the sewage sludge ash, the mix design, the bloating mechanism, and the heat-transfer properties of the sludge-ash-based insulator. Sewage sludge cakes were collected from the Bali and Minsheng sewage treatment plants (STPs) respectively, representing a typical primary and a secondary STP. The sludge cake was first incinerated at 900℃ to produce ash. Aluminum powder was used as a foaming agent, combined with pulverized scrap ( more than 90% Aluminum) small amount of OPC was used as a binder.
The characterization of the main components of the sludge ash indicate that, for sludge cakes with polymers, the ash content of the primary sludge ash(PSA) was higher than that of the secondary sludge ash(SSA), whereas the relationship was reversed for the water content. The specific surface areas of the PSA and SSA were 4,657 m2/kg and 10,193 m2/kg respectively, showing the greater fineness of the effect of sludge ash on the workability of the pastes. In general, the PSA has higher SiO2 content but lower P2O5 content than the SSA, whereas the other components were about equal to each other. Furthermore, the PSA had higher pozzolanic activity than did the SSA. These results suggest the greater economic feasibility of recycling PSA rather than SSA.
Various mix designs were tested showing that the sludge-ash-based foaming concrete had a specific gravity of less than 1.2, meeting the ASTM for lightweight concrete(LC). The foaming mechanism was mainly due to hydrogen gas being by the reaction of aluminum with hydroxyl radicals, generated by the hydration of the cement. The cellular structure was solely composed of micro pores about 1μm in diameter.
LC samples prepared according to the mix design adopted in this study showed a porosity distribution ranging from 51% to 71% for PSA-based LC, and 54% to 63% for SSA-based LC. The higher porosity of the latter resulted in a lower heat transfer(0.0880-0.2507 W/m-oK) compared to that of the former(0.0763-0.1510 W/m-oK). Therefore it is suggested that the SSA-based LC should outperform PSA-based LC in heat-insulating efficiency.
It can be concluded, from the results of this study, that PSA is more economically feasible than SSA, whereas the SSA based LC showed better heat-insulating performance than did PSA- based LC.
關鍵字(中) ★ 下水污泥灰
★ 金屬發泡劑
★ 發泡混凝土
★ 熱傳導率
關鍵字(英) ★ lightweight concrete
★ metallic foaming agent
★ sewage sludge ash
★ heat transfer
論文目次 目錄
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究內容 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2-1 下水污泥之處理與處置 5
2-1-1 下水污泥之產量推估 6
2-1-2 下水污泥之種類與特性 7
2-1-3 下水污泥之處理與處置方法 13
2-2 下水污泥資源化之潛力與方法 17
2-2-1 污泥資源化之潛力 17
2-2-2 下水污泥資源化方式 18
2-2-3 下水污泥灰之組成與特性 23
2-2-4 下水污泥灰之資源化方式 25
2-3 污泥灰發泡混凝土之反應行為 39
2-3-1 水化作用 39
2-3-2 卜作嵐特性 45
2-3-3 發泡反應 49
2-4 輕質混凝土之膨化機制與工程特性 51
2-4-1 輕質混凝土之發展與應用 51
2-4-2 輕質混凝土之膨化反應機制 57
2-4-3 輕質混凝土之工程性質與微觀結構 58
2-5 隔熱混凝土之熱傳機制與熱傳性質 64
2-5-1 熱對流與熱輻射 64
2-5-2 熱傳導之理論與機制 66
2-5-3 熱傳導之量測方法 69
2-5-4 隔熱材料之特性與選用 72
2-5-5 隔熱材料之熱傳影響因子 76
第三章 實驗材料與方法 79
3-1 實驗流程 79
3-2 實驗材料與設備 81
3-2-1 污泥來源 81
3-2-2 污泥灰製備 84
3-2-3 其他摻料 84
3-2-4 實驗設備 85
3-3 實驗配置 90
3-3-1 污泥灰發泡混凝土之配比與試體編號 90
3-3-2 發泡產氣收集與分析 92
3-3-3 熱傳導試驗 93
3-4 實驗操作與分析方法 93
3-4-1 實驗操作 93
3-4-2 分析方法 94
第四章 結果與討論 102
4-1組成材料之基本特性 102
4-1-1 下水污泥之基本特性 102
4-1-2 下水污泥灰之物理特性分析 104
4-1-3 下水污泥灰之重金屬總量與溶出特性分析 107
4-1-4 下水污泥灰之化學組成與物種型態 108
4-1-5 水泥與金屬發泡劑之基本性質分析 112
4-2 污泥灰發泡混凝土之發泡特性與反應行為 114
4-2-1 污泥灰成份與發泡特性 114
4-2-2 發泡反應與產氣分析 118
4-2-3 發泡均勻性分析 121
4-2-4 孔隙結構分析 124
4-3 污泥灰發泡混凝土之工程特性與微觀結構 131
4-3-1 吸水率 132
4-3-2 密度與體比重 137
4-3-3 抗壓強度 143
4-3-4 晶相物種與微觀結構 149
4-4 污泥灰發泡混凝土之熱傳特性 155
4-4-1 污泥灰成份與熱傳導特性 155
4-4-2 材料配比與熱傳導特性 156
4-4-3 工程性質與熱傳導特性 161
4-4-4 孔隙結構與熱傳導特性 163
第五章 結論與建議 165
5-1 結論 165
5-2 建議 169
參考文獻 171
附錄 177
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指導教授 王鯤生(Kuen-Sheng Wang) 審核日期 2002-6-28
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