博碩士論文 89342004 詳細資訊




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姓名 李嶸泰(Jung-Tai Lee)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 動力夯實之有效影響深度與地表振動阻隔研究
(The Research on Effective Influence Depth and Isolation of ground virbration Caused by Dynamic Compaction)
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摘要(中) 本研究利用圓桶形土槽模擬夯擊試驗,探討動力夯實工法施工有效之影響深度,試驗時改變多項夯擊條件,得到夯擊中心之夯擊應力隨深度變化之關係式。此一關係式配合夯擊荷載之推估公式,可評估夯擊之有效影響深度。經與麥寮六輕土壤改良實際案例之現地試驗結果比較後,得知此評估方式在考量現場與室內試驗土層差異之相關修正後,可得到一良好之預估結果。
此外,由動力夯實施工引致之波傳阻隔試驗結果得知,夯擊瞬間所測得土層表面不同水平距離處之振幅,因幾何與材料阻尼效應,使其隨距離之增加而迅速衰減。將夯擊能量加入振幅衰減公式中可獲得一個合理之經驗公式,利用此經驗公式配合前人發展出之判斷準則,即可評估所選取之夯擊能量在施工時是否會對鄰房造成損傷。
隔振設施之阻隔效果研究試驗結果得知,對於被動阻隔所探討的振源與隔振溝間之距離,理論上是愈遠愈好,但若受限於施工地區的大小時,則最少須大於3倍的振波波長。在主動阻隔方面,經不同深度之隔振溝的試驗可知,若欲使隔振溝設置後,能降低地表加速度振幅至無隔振溝存在時的0.25倍,則其深度至少須為0.7倍的振波波長,但當隔振溝深度大於0.9倍的振波波長時,隔振效果已無明顯的增加。
摘要(英) Dynamic compaction method was introduced to Taiwan in 1993, and has been applied to soil improvement operation in civil engineering successfully. However, the models of prediction effective influence depth had not been developed completely. Thus, the purpose of this research was to study the effective influence depth prediction model of dynamic compaction method. Besides, due to the high tension of environmental consciousness, and the currently increasing events of adjacent building damage caused by constructional operation, how to effectively prevent or reduce wave propagation caused by site operation would be an important issue. Therefore, in this study a series of small-scale compaction model tests and in-site exam on hydraulic-filled reclaimed land at Taichung harbor were carried out in order to elucidate the isolation of wave propagation.
In this study, dynamic compaction model tests in circular chamber were conducted to investigate the effective influence depth of sandy soil improved by dynamic compaction method. By changing the conditions of compaction, the formula related to the center of impact stress and depth was obtained. This formula coupled with the formula of impact load could predict the effective influence depth. In comparison with the experimental results of the Sixth Oil Refinery ground modification at Mai-liao, the prediction method had obtained good results after related modifications in taking into account of the differences of soil layer conditions between in-situ and lab tests.
Besides, according to the results of isolation of wave propagation tests, the amplitude measured from different horizontal distances on the ground surface at the moment of impact decayed quickly with the increase of the horizontal distance due to the geometrical and material damping effect. By adding the impact energy to the equation of wave decay, a reasonable experimental formula was obtained. Using this formula and the judgment guideline proposed by predecessor, the influences of impact energy on the adjacent building could be evaluated.
Results from the study of effective isolation equipments showed that in the aspect of passive isolation, the farther the distance between the impact source and the isolation trench the better the isolation effect theoretically. However, if the size of operation area was restricted, the distance should be at least 3 times greater than that of the wavelength. In the aspect of active isolation, the results of different depth of isolation trench tests indicated that with the installation of isolation trench, if one wanted to reduce the accelerated amplitude of ground surface to 0.25 times of that without isolation trench, the depth of isolation trench should be at least 0.7?R. However, when the depth of isolation trench was greater than 0.9?R, there was no significant increase in the effect of isolation.
關鍵字(中) ★ 有效影響深度
★ 夯擊應力
★ 夯擊荷載
★ 波傳阻隔
★ 隔振溝深度
★ 隔振溝與振源之距離
★ 動力夯實工法
關鍵字(英) ★ dynamic compaction method
★ effective influence depth
★ impact stress
★ impact load
★ isolation of wave propagation
★ depth of isolation trench
★ distance between isolation trench and impact cen
論文目次 目 錄
內 容
中文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅰ
英文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅱ
目錄 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ⅲ
照片目錄 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅷ
表目錄----------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅹ
圖目錄--------------------------------------------------------------------- ⅩⅡ
符號說明 ------------------------------------------------------------------ ⅩⅩ
第一章 緒論------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1 前言------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.2 研究動機與目的--------------------------------------------------------2
1.3 研究方法--------------------------------------------------------------3
1.4 論文內容--------------------------------------------------------------6
第二章 文獻回顧--------------------------------------------------------------7
2.1 概述------------------------------------------------------------------7
2.2 改良機制--------------------------------------------------------------8
2.2.1 飽和土之改良機制---------------------------------------------------8
2.2.1.1 動力壓密模型----------------------------------------------------8
2.2.1.2 夯擊能量的傳遞機制----------------------------------------------9
2.2.1.3 土壤強度提高之機制---------------------------------------------10
2.2.1.4 孔隙水壓變化之機制---------------------------------------------10
2.2.2 非飽和土之改良機制------------------------------------------------11
2.2.2.1 有效影響深度之推估---------------------------------------------13
2.3 動力荷載下土體中之應力分布-------------------------------------------16
2.4 振波在土壤中之衰減模式-----------------------------------------------18
2.4.1 振幅大小及衰減之主要影響因素--------------------------------------19
2.4.2 振動之阻隔研究----------------------------------------------------22
2.5 相關之實驗及數值研究 -------------------------------------------------23
2.5.1 夯擊能量作用於砂土之應力分布--------------------------------------23
2.5.2 關於振波傳遞阻隔之研究--------------------------------------------26
第三章 試驗設備及方法-------------------------------------------------------40
3.1 室內試驗-------------------------------------------------------------40
3.1.1 試驗土樣之物理性質------------------------------------------------40
3.1.2霣降試體-----------------------------------------------------------40
3.1.2.1 霣降設備-------------------------------------------------------41
3.1.2.2 標定相對密度之步驟---------------------------------------------42
3.1.3 圓桶形土槽夯擊模型試驗--------------------------------------------42
3.1.3.1 試驗儀器與設備-------------------------------------------------43
3.1.3.2 試體之製作-----------------------------------------------------44
3.1.3.3 試驗方法-------------------------------------------------------45
3.1.4 隔振溝深度對波傳阻隔之影響----------------------------------------46
3.1.4.1 試驗儀器與設備-------------------------------------------------46
3.1.4.2 試體之製作-----------------------------------------------------47
3.1.4.3 試驗步驟-------------------------------------------------------48
3.1.5 隔振溝與振源間距離對阻隔效果之影響試驗----------------------------49
3.1.5.1 試體之製作-----------------------------------------------------49
3.1.5.2 試驗方法-------------------------------------------------------49
3.1.6 阻礙物之減振效果試驗----------------------------------------------50
3.1.6.1 試體製作-------------------------------------------------------51
3.1.6.2 試驗方法-------------------------------------------------------51
3.2 現地試驗-------------------------------------------------------------51
3.2.1 量測地點與地質狀況------------------------------------------------52
3.2.2 量測規劃與配置----------------------------------------------------52
3.2.3 量測儀器----------------------------------------------------------52
3.2.4 施工機具----------------------------------------------------------53
3.3 資料之誤差與消除-----------------------------------------------------53
第四章 砂土中之夯擊應力分布與有效影響深度之推估-----------------------------76
4.1 影響砂土試體相對密度之因素-------------------------------------------76
4.2 砂土受夯擊之應力分布-------------------------------------------------78
4.2.1 夯擊荷載之探討----------------------------------------------------78
4.2.2 陷坑之損耗能量----------------------------------------------------80
4.2.3 夯擊點中心之夯擊應力----------------------------------------------82
4.2.4 夯擊應力隨水平距離之變化------------------------------------------85
4.2.5 等夯擊應力曲線----------------------------------------------------87
4.2.5.1 砂土中正規化等夯擊應力曲線-------------------------------------87
4.2.6 微音錐貫入試驗----------------------------------------------------89
4.2.7 有效影響深度之推估------------------------------------------------89
4.2.8 施工案例探討------------------------------------------------------91
4.3 小結-----------------------------------------------------------------93
第五章 砂土中夯擊之波動傳遞與阻隔------------------------------------------115
5.1 波動振幅在砂土中之衰減模式------------------------------------------115
5.1.1 振幅衰減公式之選擇-----------------------------------------------115
5.1.2 以最大地動速度PGV作為判斷準則之原因------------------------------116
5.1.3 波動振幅衰減模式之建立-------------------------------------------117
5.1.3.1夯擊次數的影響-------------------------------------------------117
5.1.3.2 相對密度之影響------------------------------------------------119
5.1.3.3 夯擊能量之影響------------------------------------------------119
5.1.4 衰減公式之適用性-------------------------------------------------120
5.2 隔振溝對於波傳阻隔之效果--------------------------------------------122
5.2.1 隔振溝深度對波傳阻隔之影響試驗-----------------------------------122
5.2.1.1 振波在砂土試體中的性質----------------------------------------123
5.2.1.2 不同隔振溝深度之影響------------------------------------------124
5.2.1.3 不同夯擊能量之影響--------------------------------------------125
5.2.1.4 不同相對密度之影響--------------------------------------------126
5.2.2 隔振溝與振源的距離對於阻隔效果之影響-----------------------------126
5.2.2.1 不同振源與隔振溝之距離----------------------------------------127
5.2.2.2 不同夯擊能量之影響--------------------------------------------127
5.2.2.3 不同相對密度之影響--------------------------------------------128
5.2.3 隔振溝與阻礙物之比較---------------------------------------------128
5.3 台中水力回填廠區之現地試驗結果分析----------------------------------129
5.3.1 最大地動速度隨距離之衰減-----------------------------------------129
5.3.2 不同夯擊次數對地表振動之影響-------------------------------------130
5.3.3 隔振溝對波傳阻隔之影響-------------------------------------------130
5.4 小結----------------------------------------------------------------131
第六章 結論與建議----------------------------------------------------------172
6.1 結論----------------------------------------------------------------172
6.2 建議----------------------------------------------------------------175
參考文獻-------------------------------------------------------------------177
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(中文按筆劃順序排列,英文按字母順序排列)
指導教授 張惠文(Huei-Wen Chang) 審核日期 2005-7-24
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