博碩士論文 89426002 詳細資訊


姓名 翁振凱(Jen-Kai Weng)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 工業管理研究所
論文名稱 物流中心之揀貨最佳化
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摘要(中) 隨著國內經濟蓬勃發展,國民所得提高,導致消費需求與消費者意識逐漸提升。傳統零售業的營運型態也隨這波潮流不斷創新與變動,連帶影響整體行銷通路體系。所謂的「物流」,指的是貨品運輸、存貨管理、訂單處理、倉儲,以及物料處理等相關的作業。大多數的物料處理作業,都是屬於勞力密集且高重複性,而在倉儲作業中,貨品的存放位置擺設與揀貨作業策略,又直接地影響了物料處理成本的高低。
本研究之所以探討揀貨區域規劃與貨品分佈之問題,主要是根據Hwang(1988) ?的研究得知,傳統物流中心內,揀貨作業其相關直接人力,佔整體物流人力的50﹪以上,而揀貨作業所花費的時間更佔了整個物流時間的30﹪至40﹪不等。由此可知,揀貨作業與物流營運成本最有關係,而物品存放擺設的規劃又與揀貨作業的效率有很大之關聯性。因此,如何發展有效的揀貨區域規劃與貨品分佈方法,將是提昇企業競爭能力的成敗關鍵。雖然已有許多學者針對倉庫的揀貨區域配置、貨品分佈與揀貨作業等問題作了相當多的研究,但是仍有許多問題還未被徹底釐清與探討,此乃揀貨區域規劃與貨品分佈方法受其環境因素影響甚大,倉儲環境之不同與貨品的存放限制都將影響這些方法的實施效果;再者,前兩者的組合又將影響到往後揀貨作業的處理問題,因此本研究所能夠探討的問題勢必又將更為複雜。本研究旨在參考現行捷盟行銷物流之倉儲環境下,貨品揀貨區域的規劃與貨品位置分佈等問題作一有系統之研究,吾人提出六種不同倉儲環境與多種貨品分佈方法,並發展一規劃揀貨區域之啟發式法則,以搭配不同之倉儲環境與貨品分佈方法,針對其個別揀貨作業之績效,求取最佳效果之組合。透過物流中心之揀貨作業於不同倉儲環境、貨品分佈,與揀貨路徑法則組合下,藉由模擬實驗驗證其效果,達到提升揀貨效率,以及縮短揀貨行走距離之目標。
摘要(英) Order-picking is an important task in the distribution center(DC) and warehouse. It consumes about 60 percent of operation cost. By improving this aspect of its business, a company can significantly reduce costs. This thesis will propose a variety ways to streamline the order-picking operation. I will develop formulas from the perspective of product classification and warehouse zoning.
Product classification organizes goods according to their physical characteristic(e.g., product size, weight, and etc. ) or turnover rate(how many items are picked per hour), and arrange them into specific groups. A company can benefit from regularizing its warehouse to save more time in the order-picking process.
Warehouse zoning divides the whole storage area into many sub-areas to reduce the time and traveling distance. A customer’s order can be split into many sub orders and can be picked simultaneously to reduce the time to a minimum.
Why is order-picking so important today? Customers demanda great variety of goods and shorter response time. These facts have caused a reduction in product quantities, and the product’s life. The competition of global markets has forced companies to reduce response time to ensure their survival. When a factory produces products from raw materials to a finished good, it’s easier to control the schedule in the factory process, as long as the product is transported to the warehouse, delivering the merchandise to the customer on time is a little more complicated.
Since delivery has become increasingly important to customers, innovations in warehouse operations has become one the most significant trends in business.
Order-picking consists of a vague of the warehouse cost. The function of the warehouse is to store the raw materials, semi-products, and finished goods. If a company wants to improve the accuracy of completing customer’s order, it has to rely on well-designed warehouse and accurate order-picking.
The objective of this paper is to improve order-picking efficiency and accuracy by proposing a method of grouping the products. This thesis will run the simulation program, SIMAN ARENA, to show the improvement and support its position.
關鍵字(中) ★ 貨品項聚群與分佈
★ 領單點與集貨點設置
★ 揀貨區域設計
★ 物流中心
關鍵字(英) ★ Distribution Center
★ Picking Zone Design
★ Order-picking
論文目次 論文提要 I
目錄 II
圖目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2捷盟物流簡介 3
1.3研究動機 6
1.4研究目標 6
1.5研究環境 7
1.6論文架構 9
1.7研究方法流程 11
第二章 文獻探討 14
2.1倉庫設計問題(Warehouse Design Problems) 15
2.1.1倉庫的走道設計問題 15
2.1.2設施規劃問題 16
2.2儲位問題(Storage Problems) 17
2.2.1貨品儲位的分配問題 17
2.2.2貨品儲位的管理問題 19
2.3訂單揀貨問題(Order-Picking Problems) 20
2.3.1揀貨員的揀貨方法 20
2.3.2揀貨員的揀貨路徑 22
2.3.3其他相關途程規劃的問題 26
2.3.4AS/RS揀貨問題 27
2.4訂單切割問題(Order-Splitting Problems) 28
第三章 研究方法 30
3.1揀貨區域的前置規劃作業 30
3.1.1揀貨區域環境種類 30
3.1.2揀貨區域規劃準則 34
3.1.3啟發式演算法 35
3.1.3.1符號定義說明 36
3.1.3.2啟發式演算法流程 36
3.1.4範例說明 37
3.2貨品分佈法則與方法 41
3.2.1貨品分佈法則 41
3.2.2貨品分佈方法 45
3.3訂單先前處理 47
3.4訂單揀取順序規劃 50
3.4.1揀貨路徑策略 50
3.4.2固定路徑之訂單初始揀貨順序決定 52
3.4.3彈性路徑之訂單初始揀貨順序決定 54
3.4.4模擬退火法 55
第四章 實驗分析 59
4.1模擬實驗設計 59
4.1.1揀貨環境設計 59
4.1.2貨品項數目與揀貨區域棧板數 60
4.1.3貨品項類別與單位容積考量 61
4.1.4實驗總揀取訂單張數 61
4.1.5揀取車輛負載量、行走速度與數量 62
4.2環境假設 63
4.3績效評估準則 63
4.4實驗因子組合 64
4.5各環境之揀貨區域規劃結果 66
4.6統計ANOVA分析與模擬實驗結果 72
4.6.1訂單揀取績效值數據 72
4.6.2統計前分析 75
4.6.3總揀貨距離績效值變異數分析 77
4.6.3.1針對個別因子不同水準之探討 78
4.6.3.2針對因子間交互作用之探討 81
4.6.3.3最佳因子組合與績效 83
4.6.4總揀取時間績效值變異數分析 84
4.6.4.1針對個別因子不同水準之探討 85
4.6.4.2針對因子間交互作用之探討 88
4.6.4.3最佳因子組合與績效 90
4.7實驗結論 91
第五章 結論與建議 92
5.1研究結論 92
5.2後續研究建議 94
參考文獻 95
附錄、系統畫面介紹 100
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指導教授 何應欽(Ying-Chin Ho) 審核日期 2002-7-9
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