博碩士論文 89521083 詳細資訊




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姓名 王隆穎(Long-In wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 電機工程學系
論文名稱 運用三超音波感測器及CCD相機於車行機器人停車入庫之研究
(Back-Parking Control of the Car via Tri-ultrasonic Sensors and CCD Camera)
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摘要(中) 為了使一台車行機器人在一個不確定的環境中,行動的更有效率,必須使用各種不同的感測器,偵測架構出機器人行走的路徑。在本篇論文中,三個超音波感測器及CCD攝影機被安裝於車行機器人上,用來控制倒車入庫的行為。整個路徑之規劃類似駕駛員將車子倒車入庫一般。一般而言,車子移動的速度並不是固定的,所以我們必須以人類的經驗來完成車子倒車入庫的行為。
摘要(英) In this paper, the tri-ultrasonic sensors and CCD camera are installed on a car-like mobile robot to control back-parking behavior. To move efficiently in an uncertain environment, a mobile robot utilizes the observations taken by various sensors to construct information for path planning and execution. The entire path planning that mimics a person’s action driving a car back into the parking space. In general, the speed of the car is not fixed, so we have to exploit the human experience to implement the back-driving behavior.
關鍵字(中) ★ 倒車入庫
★ CCD
★ 超音波感測器
關鍵字(英) ★ ultrasonic sensor
★ CCD
★ back parking
論文目次 Table of Content
Page
Abstract ……………………………………….……….………………Ⅰ
Table of Content ……..…..………….………………………………. Ⅱ
Chapter 1: Introduction …………….………………………..……... 1
1-1 Background ………………………………………………………... 1
1-2 Motivation …………………………………………………………. 1
1-3 Organization ……………………………………………………….. 2
Chapter 2: The Hardware Architecture of the Robot and the Sensor
System ……………………………………………. 3
2-1 Introduction ……………………………………………………….... 3
2-2 The hardware architecture of the mobile robot system……………... 3
2-2-1 Driver Unit …...………………………………………………. 5
2-2-2 Data Acquisition Card(PCL-818L) …………………………. ..8
2-3 The Sensor System ……………………………………………….. 9
2-3-1 Ultrasonic Transducers …………………………………….... 10
2-3-2 Ultrasonic Ranging Module ………………………………… 11
2-3-3 CCD Camera ………………………………………………... 15
2-3-4 Frame Grabber………………………………………………..15
Chapter 3: Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Sensors and CCD
Cameras ………………………………..………………… 18
3-1 Introduction ……………………………………………………18
3-2 The Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Sensors ……………………… 18
3-2-1 The ultrasonic ranging systems ………………………… 18
3-2-2 The Physical Model of Ultrasound ……………….. 20
3-3 The Principles of Image Processing ……………………………… 21
Chapter 4: Back Parking Reference Path Planning ……….…….… 24
4-1 Introduction ……..………………………...………………………. 24
4-2 Model of the Car-like mobile robot ………………………………. ..24
4-3 Reference Path Based Back Parking ……………………................. 25
Chapter 5: Automated Parking Process .……………….……… 28
5-1 Introduction ……………………………………………………….. 28
5-2 Plane Tracking ……………………………………………….….. 29
5-3 Scanning Parking Space ..………………………………………. 34
5-4 Maneuvering ……………………………..…………………….. 35
5-5 Summary ……………………………………………………… 36
Chapter 6: Experiment Results and Discussion……..…………….… 37
6-1 Introduction …………………………………………………….… 37
6-2 Operation in programming ...……………………………………… 37
6-3 Experiments Verifications ……………………………………….... 41
6-3-1 Physical Parameter ….………………………..…………… 41
6-3-2 Experiment Results ……….…………..………………… 42
6-4 Discussion ………………………………………………………… 45
Chapter 7: Conclusions and Recommendations ……….………… 46
References …………………………………….………………………. 47
參考文獻 [1] J. Barraquand and J. C. Latombe, “On nonholonomic mobile robot and optimal maneuvering”, Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Intelligent Control, pp.340-347, 1989.
[2] B. Barshan, and R. Kuc, “Differentiating sonar reflections from corners and planes by employing an intelligent sensor,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 560-569, June 1990.
[3] O. Bozma and R. Kuc, “Building a sonar map in a specular environment using a single mobile sensor,” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol.13, no. 12, pp. 1260-1269, Dec. 1991.
[4] Y. Nagashima and S. i. Yuta, ”Ultrasonic sensing for a mobile robot to recognize an environment –Measuring the normal direction of walls –“, Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, vol.2, pp.805-812, 1992.
[5] R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Wood, Digital image processing, Addison Wesley, 1992.
[6] I. Paomtchik and C. Laugier, ”Autonomous parallel parking of a nonholonomic vehile”, proc. Of IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, pp.13-18, 1996.
[7] K. T. Song and W. H. Tang, “Environment perception for a mobile robot using double ultrasonic sensors and a CCD camera,” IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp.372 -379, June, 1996.
[8] K. R. Shih,” Design and implementation of a real-time vision-based Intelligent AMR back-up control system,” Master Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, N.C.K.U., Taiwan, R.O.C., June, 1998.
[9] Y. Han and H. Hahn,” Localization and classification of target surfaces using two pairs of ultrasonic sensors”, proc. Of IEEE Int. on International Conference, Vol. 1, pp.637 -643, 1999
[10] K. Jiang, ”A sensor guided parallel parking system for nonholonomic vehicles”, proc. of IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems, pp. 270-275, 2000.
[11] J. T. Cho and B. H. Nam, “A Study on the Fuzzy Control Navigation and the
Obstacle Avoidance of Mobile Robot Using Camera”, Conf on IEEE International Conference, Vol. 04,pp.2993-2997, 2000.
[12] H. L. Ko, “Dynamic tri-ultrasonic transducer fused with Vision system for a mobile robot”, M.S. thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Central University, 2001.
指導教授 鍾鴻源(Hung-Yuan Chung) 審核日期 2002-6-24
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