博碩士論文 90144004 詳細資訊




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論文名稱 諾丁關懷倫理學的道德理論研究
(On Noddings' Care Ethics)
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摘要(中) 本論文探討諾丁如何以道德情感建構她的關懷倫理學理論。諾丁認為關係是人存在的基礎,關懷是道德的基礎。關懷關係有關懷者與被關懷者二方,關懷者的關懷特徵是先有對他人的接受性的關注( receptive attention),而有同理心( empathy )以及動機的移位( motivational displacement )、承擔性( commitment )以及相互作用( reciprocity )。被關懷者的特徵是接納與承認關懷,回應與相互作用。關懷倫理源自二種道德情感―「自然關懷」與「倫理關懷」。自然關懷是對於他人的痛苦與需要能無困難地因想做就做到。倫理關懷是當自然關懷失敗時的補救,是對於我們被關懷的美好記憶的回應,透過倫理理想與義務感而要求自己去做。諾丁關懷倫理對教育與社會政策做了許多討論與建議。
諾丁關懷倫理學對當代的貢獻是:她把從女性經驗建構的倫理論述推廣為大眾普遍接納的倫理學,這代表女性意識的興盛與女性主義的第二波文化運動。此外她對道德教育與生命教育有貢獻。關懷倫理注重具體情境的論述,以道德情感為動力,以建立、維持、並提升關懷關係為最高目的。這些對傳統倫理學是一個突破與啟發。
諾丁原初的關懷論沒有納入正義論題。所以本論文援引赫德( Virginia Held )關懷與正義的論述以補強諾丁之不足。赫德論述關懷領域應含有正義的訴求,正義領域應含有關懷的訴求。她讓關懷與正義分工合作,策略是以通通有獎的方式,讓各種倫理理論負責不同的社會領域。認為社會措施應該在關懷的氛圍下實施正義。筆者認為赫德只有分配關懷與正義的應用領域與方式,她並沒有從內含上真正融合二者而創造新的論述。所以關懷與正義的問題仍未解決。
另一個理論補強是斯洛特( Michael Slote )的同理心關懷倫理學。他以同理心概念加深關懷的哲學基礎,論述同理心可以會通關懷與正義,會通關懷論與義務論,跨越性別,跨越公私領域等等。諾丁則認為「接受性的關注」( receptive attention)比同理心更早也更重要,而批評斯洛特給同理心加入過多的意義。每個道德理論均有其適用範圍,斯洛特想用一個道德理論涵蓋人類全部的道德生活,是不可能的。筆者認為斯洛特的同理心關懷倫理學只是「同理心倫理學」,他忽略了關懷的其他重要面向與整全意義,而且完全不談關係與關懷的目的―建立、維持並提升關懷關係。所以他的關懷理論很另類。
本論文結尾對關懷論與儒家做了簡要比較研究。二者相似處在於:(1) 作為道德核心的人與關懷有相似的意義。(2) 二者均重視實踐工夫。(3) 儒家差等之愛、推恩與關懷的同心圓非常類似。(4) 二者均以家庭出發而達到仁愛社會或關懷型社會。二者差異在於:(1) 儒家天觀念具有超越意義,諾丁關懷論重視實際具體脈絡,沒有超越概念。(2) 二者在道德根源上,儒家明確以不忍人之心為根源。關懷論以自然關懷與倫理關懷之情感為根源,後又提出母性本能關懷為最早出發點,這樣顯得雜多而不明確。(3) 儒家背了二千多年的歷史包袱,有壓迫女性、維護傳統、家長主義等缺點。關懷論則反傳統,反對壓迫女性,反對家長主義等。(4) 儒家以仁為本,以義禮智為指導原則。諾丁則反對原則。(5) 儒家強調人的道德主體性,類似康德的道德自律。諾丁則強調關係性自我,認為人只有有限的自律。針對以上比較研究,關懷倫理學的發展之一是可以與儒家會通並期能建構儒家關懷倫理學。
摘要(英) In this dissertation I explore how Noddings employ the notion of moral sentiment in her construction of care ethics. Noddings holds that relation is the basis of human existence, and caring relation is the basis of morality. In the caring relation, there are the one-caring and the cared-for. The characteristics of the one-caring are receptive attention, empathy, motivational displacement, commitment, and reciprocity. The characteristics of the cared-for are receiving and recognizing caring. Morality as an active virtue requires two feelings--- the sentiments of natural caring and of ethical caring. For Noddings, natural caring is a kind of effortless act for the relief of the suffering and needs of the other. Ethical caring is a recall of the sweet memory of being cared and help to make good when natural caring failed. It needs ethical effort. Ethical caring succeeds by means of ethical ideal and a sense of obligation. Noddings applies her care ethics to education and social policies, and .many other issues.
The major contribution of Noddings’ care ethics is her use of women’s experiences to build an ethical theory and expand it towards a universal ethics. This represents the flourishing of women’s consciousness and a second wave of the movement of culture in the west Feminism. It also contributes to moral education and life education. Care ethics emphasizes moral practice in concrete situation. With the two kinds of moral sentiments, care ethics builds, maintains and enhances caring relation. These are ground-breaking for traditional ethics.
In her early theory, Noddings did not deal with the issue of justice. So I introduce Virginia Held’s theory of care and justice to make up the insufficient part of Noddings’ theory. Held argues that justice is needed in the contexts of care and care is needed in the contexts of justice. We need to combine the two in a satisfactory ethics. Anyhow, care must be given priority, we should carry out justice in the atmosphere of care. But I think Held only applies care and justice to different sectors of social affairs, and did not give a real integration of care and justice. So the problem of care and justice is not resolved satisfactorily.
Another make up is from Michael Slote’s empathy care ethics. He use the idea of empathy to refine the philosophical foundation of care ethics. He argues that empathy could connect care with justice, care ethics with deontology, across genders, across private and public domains. Slote is ambitious in unifying different thing in moral theory. Noddings holds that receptive attention is more radical and important then empathy. She criticizes Slote putting too much in empathy and neglecting other meanings of care. Slote trys to show that a care-approach makes sense across the whole range of normative moral and political issues. Noddings said this would be a mistake. For it is impossible to have all aspects of moral life explained by one comprehensive theory. I think Slote’s empathy care ethics is merely “empathy ethics”, he lost sight of the whole meaning of caring, and never talked about relation and the target of care ethics---to build, maintain, and enhance caring relation. His care ethics is so different from others.
At the end of this dissertation, I did some comparative study between care ethics and Confucianism. I point out there are four aspects of similarities. They are: (1)The meaning of care and of Jen(仁) are resemble. (2) They all emphasis the importance of practice. (3) Confucian love with gradation is resemble to the concentric circles of caring. (4) They all start from family to a humanity or caring society. There are five aspects of difference between them : (1) Confucianism takes “heaven”(天) as a transcendental concept, and have a important position in moral theory. Noddings reject transcendental, abstract ideas in her theory. Care ethics is concrete and practical. (2) They are different in the source of morality. (3) Confucianism has 2000 years history with heavy burdens, such as oppression of women and patriarchy. Care ethics is so modern and without historical burden. It fights against oppression of women and patriarchy. (4) Confucianism takes the principles of Jen(仁), Yi(義), Li(禮), Zhi(智), as the guiding principles. Noddings rejects principles. (5) Confucianism takes person as a moral agent while Noddings takes person as a relational self. According to this comparison, I think it may lead to a Confucian care ethics.
關鍵字(中) ★ 諾丁
★ 關懷倫理
★ 自然關懷
★ 關懷與正義
★ 同理心
關鍵字(英) ★ care and justice.
★ empathy
★ natural caring
★ care ethics
★ Nel Noddings
論文目次 目  錄
第一章 導論 1
第一節 研究動機、目的與方法 1
第二節 諾丁關懷倫理學的被思想背景 4
一、寇柏之道德發展階段論與正義 4
二、吉利根不同的聲音與關懷 7
第三節 文獻回顧與章節大要以及本論文限制 14
第二章 諾丁關懷倫理學的基本理論 19
第一節 關係、相遇、關懷關係與關懷( Care for )的意義 20
第二節 關懷者( the one caring or the carer )的意義 23
一、關懷者的意義與特徵 23
二、關懷者的人際關係圈子與鎖鏈 26
第三節 被關懷者( the cared-for )的意義 26
第四節 論關心( care about )與正義 28
第五節 論關懷病理學 32
第六節 論需要( need ) 36
一、需要的識別與分類 37
二、權利來自需要 40
第七節 論關係性自我與自律 42
一、諾丁論關係性自我 43
二、諾丁論自律 46
第三章 論本能關懷、自然關懷與倫理關懷―關懷的道德理論 49
第一節 道德的根源―從本能關懷、自然關懷到倫理關懷的道德情感 49
一、本能關懷與自然關懷的意義 49
二、倫理關懷的意義 57
三、自然關懷與倫理關懷的區分與彼此的關係 59
四、對本能關懷、自然關懷、與倫理關懷的意見與批判 61
第二節 從自然關懷到倫理關懷的橋樑―論倫理理想 63
第三節 從關懷的倫理理想建立義務 66
一、義務的形成 67
二、義務的實踐 69
第四節 對諾丁道德理論之平議 72
一、關懷倫理學的道德理論特色 72
二、對諾丁關懷理論的檢討與批判 75
第四章 諾丁論關懷的社會政策與教育 84
第一節 最佳家庭的意義―「我在這裡!」家是自我的延伸 85
一、保護孩子存活 86
二、促進孩子成長 88
三、培養孩子成為可被接受的人 88
四、培養孩子成為具有關懷能力的人 92
第二節 論關懷倫理學的社會政策 94
一、從關懷倫理論墮胎等生命倫理相關議題 95
二、從關懷倫理論無家可歸者之社會政策 98
三、從關懷倫理論毒品問題之社會政策 99
四、從關懷倫理論對受刑人之管理 102
第三節 關懷倫理學的應用―諾丁的教育理念與實踐 104
一、從關懷倫理論教育的目的與面向 104
二、從關懷倫理論教育的連續性 105
三、從關懷倫理論道德教育的四個方法 106
四、從關懷倫理論對教育的建議 109
第五章 赫德與斯洛特對諾丁關懷理學的批判與補充 112
第一節 赫德對關懷倫理學的論述 114
一、赫德論關懷倫理學的特色 115
二、赫德就關懷與正義問題對吉利根與諾丁的批判 115
三、赫德論關懷與正義 117
四、對赫德關懷倫理學的回應與批判 122
五、李晨陽從儒家思想論關懷與正義的問題 128
第二節 斯洛特對同理心關懷倫理學的論述 132
一、斯洛特同理心關懷倫理學的特色 132
二、同理心的意義 134
三、同理心與義務論 135
四、同理心與自律 137
五、同理心與社會正義 139
六、對斯洛特同理心關懷倫理學之平議 140
第六章 關懷倫理學的當代意義與發展 146
第一節 關懷倫理學的當代意義 146
一、女性意識興盛―女性主義運動第二波文化運動 146
二、關懷理論對道德教育的貢獻 147
三、關懷倫理對生命教育的挹注 147
四、對傳統倫理學的突破與啟發 148
第二節 關懷倫理學的發展―與儒家思想的會通並建立儒家關懷倫理學 149
一、論關懷倫理學與儒家的相似性 150
二、關懷倫理學與儒家的差異 156
三、諾丁對儒家與關懷倫理學之異同分析的批判與回應 162
四、關懷倫理學與儒家思想的會通與整合―建立儒家關懷倫理學 166
參考書目 169
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顧燕翎、鄭至慧主編,1999,《女性主義經典》,台北:女書文化。
顧燕翎主編,1996,《女性主義與流派》,台北:女書文化。
蕭巍,1999,《女性主義關懷倫理學》,北京:北京出版社。
蕭巍,2000,《女性主義倫理學》,成都:四川人民出版社。
Abbott, Pamela & Wallsce, Claire 著,俞智敏、陳光達、張素梅,張君玫等譯,1995,《女性主義觀點的社會學》,台北:巨流。
Hersh, Richard H.等著,單文經、汪履維合譯,1986,《道德發展與教學》,台北:五南出版社
Phoca, Sophiam著,謝小岑譯,1999,《後女性主義》,台北:立緒文化。
Ronald Duska & Mariellen Whelan 原著,胡安德譯,1979,《道德觀念的發展過程》,台北:光啟出版社。
Watkins, Susan Alice著,朱侃如譯,1995,《女性主義》,台北:立緒文化。
三、英文專書
Baier, Annette C.,1994, Moral Prejudices: Essays on Ethics. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Barnes, Marian,2006,Caring and Social Justice. China: Palgrave Macmillan.
Barry, Brian,1995, Justice as Impartiality, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Blum, Lawrence A., 1994, Moral Perception and Particularity N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
Blustein, Jeffrey, 1991, Care and Commitment: Taking The Personal Point Of View. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bowden, Peta, 1997, Caring: Gender Sensitive Ethics. London: Routledge.
Bubeck, Diemut, 1995, Care, Gender, and Justice, N.Y. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Buber, Martin by Walter Kaufmann, ( tr. ) 1970, I And Thou, New York: Touchstone and Colophon are registered trademarks of Simon & Schuster Inc.
Buber, Martin Ronald Gregor, Smith, ( tr. ) 1958, I And Thou. New York: Collier Books Macmillan Publishing Company.
Chodorow, Nacy J., 1978, The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender, Berkeley & Los angeles: University of California Press. 張君玫譯,2003,《母職的再生產:心理分析與性別社會學》台北:群學出版社。
Claudia Card ed., 1991, Feminist Ethics Lawrence, Kansas:University Press Of Kansas.
Clement, Grace, 1996, Care, Autonomy, and Justice: Feminism and the Ethic of Care, Oxford: Westview Press.
Cole, Eve Browning, & Coultrap-McQuin, Susan ed., 1992, Explorations in Feminist Ethics: Theory and Practice, Bloomington : Indiana University Press.
Daniel, A. Bell & Hahm, Chaibong edited, 2003, Confucianism for the Modernworld, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
DesAutels, Peggy & Waugh, Joanne, eds., 2001 Feminists Doing Ethics, Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield.
Dewey, John, 1963, Experience and Education, New York: Collier Macmillan.
Dewey, John, 1916, Democracy and Education, New York: Macmillan.
Engster, Daniel, 2007, The Heart of Justice: care ethics and political theory, New York: Oxford University Press.
Frankena, William K., 1973, Ethics , Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice-Hall, Inc.黃慶明譯,1972,《倫理學》,台北市,有志圖書。
Friedman, Marilyn, 1993, What Are Friends For?: Feminist Perspectives on Personal Relationships and Moral Theory. Ithaca and London : Cornell University Press.
Gilligan, Carol, 1982, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development, Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press. 蕭巍譯,1999,《不同的聲音―心理學理論與婦女發展》,北京:中央編譯出版社。
Halfcn, Mark S., and Haber, Joram C., ed., 1998, Norms and Values: Essays on The Work of Virginia Held. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield.
Haminton, Maurice, 2004, Embodied Care: Jane Addams, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Feminist Ethics. United States of America: University of Illinois Press.
Hamington, Maurice and Miller, Dorothy C. ed., 2006, Socializing Care: Feminist Ethics and Public Issues, New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Hekman, Susan J.,1995, Moral Voices Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Held, Virginia, 2006, The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global, New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Held, Virginia, ed., 1995, Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics,Boulder Colo.: Westview Press.
Held, Virginia, 1993, Feminist Morality: Transforming Culture, Society, and Politic, Chicago and London: The University Of Chicago Press.
Hoffman, Martin L. 2000, Empathy and moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice, New York : Cambridge University Press. 楊韶剛、萬明合譯,2003,《移情與道德發展:關愛和公正的內涵》,黑龍江:人民出版社。
Hume, David, 1967, “An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals” in Ethical Theories, Melden, A. I., ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Jaggar, Alison M., 1983, Feminist Politics and Human Nature. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Kant, Immanuel, 1959, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, trans. Lewis White Beck, Indianapolis : Bobbs-Merrill.
Kant, Immanuel, 1929, Critique of Pure Reason translated by Norman Kemp Smith, London : Macmillan and Coltd.
Kittay, Eva Feder, 1999, Loves Labor: Essays on Women, Equality, and Dependency. New York : Routledge.
Koehn, Daryl, 1998, Rethinking Feminist Ethics: Care, Trust and Empathy, London & New York : Routledge.
Kohlberg, Lawrence, 1981, ThePhilosophy of Moral Development:Moral Stages and The Idea of Justice, Essays on Moral Development, v.1, San Francisco : Harper&
Row. 單文經譯,民75,《道德發展的哲學》,台北:黎明出版社。
Kohlberg, L., 1984, The Psychology of Moral Development; the Nature and Validity of Moral Stages. Cambridge: Harper & Row.郭本禹譯,2004,《道德發展心理學》,上海:華東師範大學出版。
Koehn, Daryl, 1998, Rethinking Feminist Ethics: Care, Trust and Empathy, London: Routledge.
Larrabee, Mary Jeanne ed., 1993, An Ethic of Care: Feminist and Interdisciplinary Perspectives, New York & London : Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc.
Legge, James, 1969, Four Book華英對照,台北:文源書局。
Mayeroff, Milton, 1971, On Caring, New York : Harper & Row, Inc.
Mclean, Georgr F, & Knowles, Richard T., ed, 1992, Psychological Foundation of Moral Education and Character Development : An Integrated Theory of Moral Development, Lanham, MD. : University Press of America.
方能御譯,1993,《道德發展心理學》,台北市:臺灣商務。
Nicholson, Linda, ed., 1990, Feminism/Postmodernism, New York: Routledge.
Pooler, Ann Marie, 1999, De-Romanticizing Care: A Critique of Care Ethics, Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Rawls, John,1993, Political Liberalism,New York :Columbia University Press.
Rawls, John, 1971, A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press.
Ruddick, Sara, 1989, Maternal Thinking: Toward a Politics of Peace, Boston: Beacon Press.
Sevenhuijsen, Selma, 1998, Citizenship and the Ethics of Care: Feminist Considerations on Justice, Morality and Politics, New York: Routledge.
Singer, Peter, 2002, One World: The Ethics of Globalization, New Haven and London : Yale University Press.
Slote, Michael, 2007, The ethics of care and empathy, London and New York : Routledge.
Slote, Michael, 2001, Morals from Motives, New York: Oxford University Press.
Slote, Michael, 1992, From Morality to Virtue, New York: Oxford University Press.
Slote, Michael. 1983. Goods and Virtues, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tronto, Joan C., 1993, Moral Boundaries: A Political Argument for an Ethic of Care, New York: Routledge.
Tong, Rosemarie Putnam, 1998, Feminist Thought: A More comprehensive Introduction, Boulder, Co.: Westview Press. 羅斯瑪麗•帕特南•佟(童)原著,艾曉明譯,2002,《女性主義思潮導論》,武漢:華中師範大學出版社。
Tong, Rosemarie Putnam, 1993, Feminine and Feminist Ethics, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Walker, Margaret Urban, 2003, Moral Contexts, Lanham, M.D. : Rowman & Littlefield.
Walker, Margaret Urban, ed., 1999, Mother Time: Women, Aging, and Ethics, Lanham, M.D. : Rowman & Littlefield.
Walker, Margaret Urban, 1998, Moral Understandings: A Feminist Study in Ethics, New York : Routledge.
Williams, Bernard, 1981, Moral Luck: Philosophical Papers 1973-80, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
四、中文論文
方志華,1999,「關懷倫理學相關理論開展在社會正義及教育上的意涵」,第二屆台灣教育社會學論壇,台北,國立臺灣師辦大學教育系主辦,民國88年12月5-7日。
石致華,2011,「書評 Reviews:The Maternal Factor: Two Paths to Morality. By Nel Noddings. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. Pp. vii+296.」《中央大學文學院人文學報》,第45期,2011年1月,頁237-252。
石致華,2009,「諾丁關懷倫理學的內涵與時代意義」,靜宜大學第十屆「現代思
潮」全國學術研討會專刊,2009.5.22,頁45-68。
石致華,2009,「諾丁關懷倫理學與道德教育初探」,《人文理念的創新與傳承》
2009年青年學者論壇學術研討會專輯,國科會人文學研究中心主辦,台大哲
學系協辦,2009.5.21.,頁10-1~10-26。
石致華,2009,「關懷倫理學對生命教育的啟發」,《通識在線》,No.20 January 2009,頁26-27。
石致華,2008,「初論諾丁關懷倫理學的自然關懷與倫理關懷」收錄於《第四屆校際研究生論文發表會》專輯,中壢市:中央大學哲研所,2008年11月25-26,頁1-14。
李瑞全,2006,「從儒家之終極關懷論生命倫理學之方向」,《應用倫理研究通訊》第37期2006年2月,頁57-63。
李瑞全,1994,「儒家的道德教育理論之現代詮釋與意義」,《亞太區的教育與發展》專輯,香港:中文大學,《教育學報》,21卷2期及22卷1期,1994年6月,頁75-78。
李奉儒,2008,「後現代倫理學與道德教育」,師大教育系教育哲學經典研讀會,2008.11.24。
李奉儒,2005,「尊重與關懷作為學校品格教育的核心」,《國教天地》159期,2005年1月,頁20-29。。
李奉儒,1997,「後現代倫理學與道德蘊義」,《教育研究研習資訊》第14卷第1期,民國86年2月,頁57-63。
林遠澤,2008.6.6,「試從女性主義關懷倫理學的道德意識論護理倫理的教育學基礎」,弘光大學護理人文教育研習會。
吳秀瑾,2007,「非公理化的兩種道德實踐智慧:等差性關懷倫理學與道德個別主義」,《東吳哲學學報》第15期,2007年2月,頁1-46。
吳秀瑾,2006,「關懷倫裡的道德蘊涵:是論女性主義的道德知識生產與實踐」,《國立政治大學哲學學報》第16期,2006年7月,頁107-162。
黃 藿,2004,「談品格教育與意志力薄弱的問題」,《國教天地》121期,2004年5月,頁12-19。
游惠瑜,2009,「關懷倫理與德行倫理的交會處」,《哲學與文化》第417期,頁75-92。
戴 華,2001,「姬莉根的關懷倫理與康德的道德觀點」,台灣哲學會2001年學術研討會,2001。
五、英文論文
Ann A. Pang-White(龐安安),2009, “Reconstructing Modern Eethics: Confucian Care Ethics” in Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 2009,Wiley-Blackwell Press.
Bagnoli, Carla, 2004, “Book Review of Virginia Held, The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global” in Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, University of Notre Dame, 2004.6.4.
Baier, Annette C., 2004, “Demoralization, Trust, and the Virtues” in Setting the Moral Compass, Cheshire Calhoun ed., New York: Oxford University Press.
Baier, Annette C., 1986, “Trust and Anti-Trust.” Ethics, 96:231-60, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1986.
Baier, Annette C., 1987, “The Need for More than
Justice”in Justice and Care Virginia Held ed., Boulder U. S. Westview A Division of Harper Collins Publishers
Press, 1995.
Bergman, Roger, 2004, June, “Caring for the Ethical Ideal: Nel Noddings on Moral Education” in Journal of Moral Education, Vol. 33, No. 2, June 2004, Creighton
University, USA.
Blum, Lawrence, 2008, “Book Review of Michael Slote,
2007 , The Ethics of Care and Empathy” in 2004 Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews Site Last Modified: 9/11/2008 ISSN:1538-1619, 2008.03.05.
Calhoun, Cheshire, 2008, “Book Review of Virginia Held, The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global” in Arizona State University Ethics, Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 2008.
Chan, Sin Yee(陳倩儀), 2003, “The Confucian Conception of Gender in the Twenty-First Century” in Hahm Chaibong and Daniel A. Bell, eds., Confucianism for the Modern World, Ch.13, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chan, Sin Yee(陳倩儀)2000,“Can Shu be the One Work That Serves as the Guiding Principle of Caring Action? ” in Philosophy East & West vol. 50, No.4, October 2000, pp.507-524. Hawai’i: University of Hawai’i Press.
DeCoste, Jordan, 2010, “Review - The Maternal Factor: Two Paths to Morality” Columbia University:Teachers College Record, V.112 No.9, August 02, 2010.
Deveaux, Monique, 1995, “Shifting Paradigms: Theorizing Care and Justice in Political Theory” in Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy 10( 2 )( spring ): 115-19. Symposium on Care and Justice. Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Engelhardt, H. T. Jr., 1978, “Medicine And The Concept of Person” in Tom Beauchamp & Seymour Perlin ( ed. ), Ethical Issues In Death And Dying, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice-Hall, 1978, pp.271-284.凌琪翔譯,「生命的神聖與人格的概念」,收錄於Loius Pojman1編著,陳瑞麟等譯,1997,《今生今世》,台北:桂冠圖書, pp.85-98.
Feinberg, Joel, 1980, “Abortion” in Matters of Life and Death, Tom Regan ed. 1980 New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.
Fisher, Berenice, and Tronto, Joan, 1990, “Toward a Feminist Theory of Caring” in Circles of Care, eds. E. Abel and M. Nelson. Albany: SUNY Press.1990.
Friedman, Marilyn, 2008, “Care Ethics and Moral Theory: Review Essay of Virginia Held, The Ethics of Care” in St. Louis Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Vol. LXXVII No. 2, September 2008, International Phenomenological Society, Washington University.
Gilligan, Carol, 1987, “Moral Orientation and Moral Development”, Women and Moral Theory, eds. Eva Feder Kittay and Diana T. Meyers. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield.
Habermas, Jiirgen, 1995, “Discourse Ethics,” in Jürgen Habermas, Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Held, Virginia, 2002, “Moral Subjects: The Natural and the Normative.” Presidential address, American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. Newark, DE ( November ).
Hoagland, Sarah Lucia, 1990, “Some Concerns About Nel Noddings' Caring", Hypatia : A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, vol. 5, no. 1 ( Spring 1990 ). Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Keller, Jean, 1997,“Autonomy, Relationality, and Feminist Ethics.”, Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, vol.12, no.2, 152-65. Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Lee, Shui Chuen(李瑞全), 2007, “On Relational Autonomy: From Feminist Critique to a Confucian Model for Clinical Practice”, in Shui Chuen Lee ed., The Family, Medical Decision-Making, and Biotechnology:Critical Reflections on Asian Moral Perspectives ( Dordrecht: Springer, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2007 ), pp.83-93.
Lee, Shui Chuen(李瑞全, 2006,“From Care Ethics to a New Pathway of Bioethics: A Confucian Contribution and Its Implications” E.M.C. from the 2006 EACME ( European Association for Centres of Medical Ethics ) Annual Conference 28-30 September, 2006, Leuven, Belgium Theme: New Pathways for European Bioethics.
Li, Chenyang(李晨陽), 2008, “Does Confucian Ethics Integrate Care Ethics and Justice Ethics ? The Case of Mencius”, Asian Philosophy, Vol.18. No.1. March 2008, pp.69-82. Taylor & Francis.
Li, Chenyang, 2002, “Revisiting Confucian Jen Ethics and Feminist Care Ethics: A Reply to Daniel Star and Lijun Yuan.”, Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, 17( 1 ): 130-40. Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Li, Chenyang, 2000, “Confucianism and Feminist Concerns: Over Coming the Confucian ‘Gender Complex’”, Journal of Chinese Philosophy 27:2 ( Jun3 2000 )
187-199.
Li, Chenyang, 1994, “The Confucian Concept of Jen and the Feminist Ethics of Care: A Comparative Study.” Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, 9( 1 ): 70-89. Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Luo, Shirong(羅軾融), 2007,“Relation, Virtue, and Relational Virtue: Three Concepts of Caring”, Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, vol.22, no.3 ( summer 2007 ). Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Postow, B.C., 2008, “Care Ethics and Impartial Reasons”, Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, Vol.23, no.1 ( January-March 2008 ) Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Prichard, H.A., 1912, “Does Moral Philosophy Rest in a Mistake?”, Mind 21( 1912 ):21-37.
Herr, Ranjoo Seodu, 2003, “Is Confucianism Compatible with Care Ethics? A Critique”, Philosophy East & West vol. 53, No.4, October 2003 pp.471-489.
Hawai’i : University of Hawai’i Press.
Rosenlee, Li-Hsiang Lisa, 2008, “Book Review of Virginia Held, The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global” in University of Hawaii Philosophy East
& West Volume 58, Number 3 July 2008, p.403-407, University of Hawaii Press.
Ruddick, Sara, 1980, “Maternal Thinking,” Feminist Studies 6: 342—67.
Ruiz, Blanca Rodriguez, 2005, “Caring Discourse:The Care/Justice Debate Revisited”, Philosophy & Social Criticism, vol.31.no.7.pp.773-800, London : Sage Publications 2005.
Star, Daniel, 2002, “Do Confucians Really Care? A Defense of the Distinctiveness of Care Ethics: A Reply to Chenyang Li”, Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy 17, 1: 77-106. 2002. Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Tao Lai, Julia Po-Wah(陶黎寶華, 2000,“Two Perspectives of Care; Confucian Ren and Feminist Care”, Journal of Chinese Philosophy 27:2 ( June 2000 )215-240.
Tronto, Joan, 1999, “Review Essay: Care Ethics: Moving Forward”, Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy vol.14, no.1 (Winter 1999), Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Tronto, Joan C., 1996, “Care as a Political Concept” in Nancy J. Hirschmann and Christine Di Stefano, eds. Revisioning the Political: Feminist Reconstructions of Traditional Concepts in Western Political Theory. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Walker, Margaret Urban,1989,“Moral Understandings: Alternative‘Epistemology’for a Feminist Ethics”, Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, 4: 15-28. Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Walker, Margaret Urban, 1992, “Feminism, Ethics, and the Question of Theory”, Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, 7: 23-38. Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Yuan, Lijun.(苑莉均), 2002, “Ethics of Care and Concept of Jen: A Reply to Chenyang Li”, Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, 17:1, 107-129.2002. Bloomington IN.: Indiana University Press.
Xiao, Wei.(蕭巍), tran. by Ole Döring and Xiao Wei, 2008, “Caring Confucianism, Feminism, and Christian Ethics”, Contemporary Chinese Thought, vol.39, no.2, winter 2007-8, pp.32-48., 2008, M.E.Sharpe. Inc.
六、網頁資料
Baier, Annette C., “Is Empathy All We Need?” in André Abath and Leonardo de Mello Ribeiro ed., Abstracta, Special Issue V, 2010. ISSN 1807-9792.
http://www.abstracta.pro.br/english/regras.asp .
Cottingham, John, 2010, “Empathy and Ethics” André Abath and Leonardo de Mello Ribeiro ed., Abstracta, Special Issue V, 2010. ISSN 1807-9792.
http://www.abstracta.pro.br/english/regras.asp .
Driver, Julia, 2010, “Care and Empathy: On Michael Slote’s Sentimentalist Ethics” in André Abath and Leonardo de Mello Ribeiro ed., Abstracta, Special Issue V, 2010.
ISSN 1807-9792. http://www.abstracta.pro.br/english/regras.asp .
Noddings, Nel, 2010, “Complexity in caring and empathy”, in André Abath and Leonardo de Mello Ribeiro ed.,
Abstracta, Special Issue V, 2010.ISSN 1807-9792 http://www.abstracta.pro.br/english/regras.asp .
Noddings,Nel,1999,“Two concepts of caring, in Philosophy of Education Society,1999, http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-yearbook/1999/noddings.asp. Accessed December 6, 2004.
Slote, Michael, 2010, “The Ethics of Care and Empathy” in André Abath and Leonardo de Mello Ribeiro ed. Abstracta, Special Issue V, 2010. ISSN 1807-9792.
http://www.abstracta.pro.br/english/regras.asp .
Slote, Michael, 1999, “Caring Versus the Philosophers” in Philosophy of Education Society 1999, http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-yearbook/1999/slote.asp, Accessed December 6, 2004.
指導教授 李瑞全(Shui-Chuen Lee) 審核日期 2011-7-19
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