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姓名 劉俊志(Chun-Chih Liu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 膨潤土與花崗岩碎石混合材料之熱傳導係數
(Measurement of thermal conductivity of bentonite and crushed granite mixture)
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摘要(中) 現今世界上由於放射性能源大量的使用,處置放射性廢料的處置便成為重要的研究課題。目前對於放射性廢料的處置方法中較普遍的方法是利用深層處置場來封存放射性廢料,並於廢料與母岩中加一緩衝材料,緩衝材料的選取依各國家資源不同而有些許之差異,目前各國研究其工程性質發現,膨潤土與砂-膨潤土顆粒混合材料,具有良好的阻絕性及優良的熱學性質。
本文主要針對純膨潤土與依照不同體積比混和之膨潤土加花崗岩碎石,製作不同乾密度,含水量之土樣。設計一模具壓製試體,利用暫態熱針法量測熱傳導係數,由試驗結果可以得知,熱傳導係數會隨著土體之乾密度與含水量之增加而增加;與花崗岩碎石混合後,由於花崗岩可視為一加強材料,故熱傳導係數亦會隨著顆粒之體積比之增加而增加。利用微觀力學成分體積比觀念,發展等含水量法與等密度法計算體積比,應用於微分模式與Self-consistent scheme預測熱傳導係數,與De Vries and Campbell所發展之經驗式(1985),兩者與實驗值比較,可得一良好之預測結果。
摘要(英) For the use of radioactive energy, it is important to develop techniques for the disposal of radioactive wastes in the world. Recently, many countries plan to construct the disposal facility underground deeply. Radioactive waste are sealed in canisters, and buffer materials are filled between canisters and host rock. Buffer materials must have good engineering properties. One of the most important factor is the thermal property. Among the candidates of buffer materials in many other researches, we know that mixture of bentonite and crushed granite has good mechanical properties and thermal characteristics.
The study aims at measuring thermal conductivity of buffer materials with different densities, water contents and granite contents. We improve the heat probe method (ASTM D5334) by designing proper instruments and techniques to measure the thermal conductivity of bentonite and sand-bentonite mixture. In the results we find that the thermal conductivities of buffer material blocks rise with the increasing of density or water content. With mixing of crushed granite, which has higher thermal conductivities, the thermal conductivity increases with granite volumetric fraction. Appling the concept of micromechanics, we develop the equal-density and the equal-water-content method to calculate the volumetric fraction of two individual batches to form one. In this way, Differential scheme and Self-consistent scheme can be applied to predict the thermal conductivities. In comparing with experiential method: the De Vries and Campbell model, both methods can match with experimental data well.
關鍵字(中) ★ 熱傳導係數
★ 緩衝材料
★ 微觀力學熱探針法
關鍵字(英) ★ micromechanics
★ buffer material
★ thermal conductivity
論文目次 圖目錄 VI
表目錄 1
第一章 緒 論.........................................1
1.1研究動機.............................................1
1.2研究目的.............................................1
1.3研究方法.............................................2
1.4論文架構.............................................2
1.5 研究流程圖..........................................3
第二章 文獻回顧 ......................................4
2.1高放射性廢棄物處置場.................................4
2.2大地材料熱學基本理論.................................6
2.2.1熱傳導理論.........................................6
2.2.2大地材料相關熱學物理性質...........................8
2.2.2.1熱擴散係數.......................................8
2.2.2.2比熱.............................................9
2.2.2.3熱阻............................................10
2.3熱傳導係數量測方法..................................11
2.3.1穩態(steady state)量測..........................11
2.3.1.1熱流計法........................................11
2.3.1.2分割棒法........................................12
2.3.2暫態(transient state)量測.......................12
2.3.2.1熱探針法........................................12
2.3.2.2雷射反射法......................................15
2.4複合材料熱傳導係數預測模式..........................15
2.4.1 N相材料之串聯與並聯..............................16
2.4.2 Self-Consistent預測模式..........................17
2.4.3微分模式(Differential scheme)...................17
2.4.4 De Vries and Campbell 模式.......................18
2.5緩衝材料熱傳導係數相關文獻..........................20
第三章 試驗材料與研究方法...........................22
3.1試體來源與準備 .....................................22
3.1.1膨潤土(Bentonite)...............................22
3.1.1.1不同含水量膨潤土控制方法........................23
(A) 增加含水量 .....................................23
(B)減少含水量 .....................................25
3.1.2花崗岩(granite).................................26
3.2試驗儀器 .....................................27
3.2.1資料擷取系統 .....................................27
3.2.2電動碎石機 .....................................27
3.2.3壓力試驗機 .....................................28
3.2.4熱探棒 .....................................29
3.2.5溫度量測元件 .....................................31
3.3美國材料測試協會對暫態熱傳導係數量測法規範 ..........32
3.3.1試驗概述...........................................33
3.3.2試驗儀器...........................................33
3.3.3結果之應用.........................................34
3.4試驗製作與成模方法...................................34
3.4.1試體成模方式 ......................................34
3.4.1.1方柱形緩衝材料試體模具...........................34
3.4.1.2試體壓製試驗步驟.................................36
3.5熱傳導係數量測步驟與方法 .............................40
3.6熱探針法改良試驗結果比較 .............................42
第四章 研究結果與討論.................................44
4.1純膨潤土之熱傳導係數.................................44
4.1.1 熱傳導係數與乾密度之關係..........................44
4.1.1.1最大成模應力與乾密度之關係.......................44
4.1.1.2 熱傳導係數與乾密度之關係........................45
4.1.1.3熱傳導係數與孔隙率之關係.........................46
4.1.2熱傳導係數與含水量之關係...........................48
4.1.2.1最大成模應力與含水量之關係.......................48
4.1.2.2熱傳導係數與含水量之關係.........................48
4.2純膨潤土熱傳導係數預測方法...........................51
4.2.1成分體積比之定義...................................51
4.2.2等含水量法.........................................51
4.2.2.1等含水量法之成份體積比定義 ....................51
4.2.2.2兩相土體之等含水量法模式計算 ....................52
4.2.2.3多相土體之等含水量法模式計算 ....................54
4.2.2.4等含水量法結合N相材料之串聯與並聯預測模式分析....57
4.2.2.5等含水量法結合Self-Consistent Scheme預測熱傳導係數分析...58
4.2.2.6等含水量法結合微分模式預測熱傳導係數之分析...............58
4.2.3等密度法...................................59
4.2.3.1等密度法之成分體積比定義.................59
4.2.3.2多相土體之等密度法模式計算...............60
4.2.3.3等密度法結合N相材料之串聯與並聯預測模式分析..............64
4.2.3.4等密度法結合Self-Consistent Scheme預測熱傳導係數分析.....64
4.2.3.5等密度法結合微分模式預測熱傳導係數之分析.......64
4.2.4 De Vries and Campbell (1985) model........66
4.2.4.1 De Vries and Campbell (1985)模式分析..68
4.3膨潤土混合花崗岩碎石之熱傳導係數.............69
4.3.1最大成模應力與碎石含量之關係...............69
4.3.2花崗岩碎石體積比對熱傳導係數之影響.........70
4.4膨潤土混合花崗岩碎石熱傳導預測模式比較.......74
4.4.1混和體積比之概念...........................74
4.4.2複合土體預測模式之建立.....................74
4.4.3模式評估...................................75
4.4.3.1 N相材料之串聯與並聯 .....................75
4.4.3.2微分模式.................................75
4.4.3.3Self-consistent scheme...................76
4.5純膨潤土之微觀力學模式應用於熱傳導係數預測 ..84
4.5.1計算熱傳導係數.............................84
第五章 結論與建議 ..............................87
5.1結論 .......................................87
5.2建議 .......................................88
參考文獻 .......................................89
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指導教授 田永銘(Yuan-Ming Tien) 審核日期 2003-7-19
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